Naqsh-e Jahan Square


Naqsh-e Jahan Square

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Meidan Emam, Esfahan
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Naghshe Jahan Square Isfahan modified.jpg

Naghsh-i Jahan square
Location IsfahanIsfahan ProvinceIran
Criteria Cultural: (i)(v)(vi)
Reference 115
Inscription 1979 (3rd Session)
Coordinates 32°39′26.82″N 51°40′40″ECoordinates32°39′26.82″N 51°40′40″E
Naqsh-e Jahan Square is located in Iran

Naqsh-e Jahan Square
Location of Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Iran.

Naqsh-e Jahan Square (Persianمیدان نقش جهان‎ Maidān-e Naqsh-e Jahān; trans: “Image of the World Square”), also known as Meidan Emam, is a square situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran. Constructed between 1598 and 1629, it is now an important historical site, and one of UNESCO‘s World Heritage Sites. It is 160 metres (520 ft) wide by 560 metres (1,840 ft) long[1] (an area of 89,600 square metres (964,000 sq ft)). It is also referred to as Shah Square or Imam Square.[2] The square is surrounded by buildings from the Safavid era. The Shah Mosque is situated on the south side of this square. On the west side is the Ali Qapu Palace. Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque is situated on the eastern side of this square and at the northern side Keisaria gate opens into the Isfahan Grand Bazaar. Today, Namaaz-e Jom’eh (the Muslim Friday prayer) is held in the Shah Mosque.

The square is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 20,000 rials banknote.[3]


Great Bazaar of Isfahan, 1703, drawing by G. Hofsted van Essen, Leiden UniversityLibrary

19th century drawing of Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Isfahan; this drawing is the work of French architect, Xavier Pascal Coste, who traveled to Iran along with the French king’s embassy to Persia in 1839.

Horse and buggy in the square

Naghshe Jahan at night

In 1598, when Shah Abbas decided to move the capital of his empire from the north-western city of Qazvin to the central city of Isfahan, he initiated what would become one of the greatest programmes in Persian history; the complete remaking of the city. By choosing the central city of Isfahan, fertilized by the Zāyande roud (“The life-giving river“), lying as an oasis of intense cultivation in the midst of a vast area of arid landscape, he distanced his capital from any future assaults by the Ottomans, the arch rival of the Safavids,[4] and the Uzbeks, and at the same time gained more control over the Persian Gulf, which had recently become an important trading route for the Dutch and British East India Companies.[5]

The chief architect of this colossal task of urban planning was Shaykh Bahai (Baha’ ad-Din al-`Amili),[6] who focused the programme on two key features of Shah Abbas’s master plan: the Chahar Bagh avenue, flanked at either side by all the prominent institutions of the city, such as the residences of all foreign dignitaries, and the Naqsh-e Jahan Square (“Exemplar of the World“).[7] Prior to the Shah’s ascent to power, Persia had a decentralized power-structure, in which different institutions battled for power, including both the military (the Qizilbash) and governors of the different provinces making up the empire. Shah Abbas wanted to undermine this political structure, and the recreation of Isfahan, as a Grand capital of Persia, was an important step in centralizing the power.[8] The ingenuity of the square, or Maidān, was that, by building it, Shah Abbas would gather the three main components of power in Persia in his own backyard; the power of the clergy, represented by the Masjed-e Shah, the power of the merchants, represented by the Imperial Bazaar, and of course, the power of the Shah himself, residing in the Ali Qapu Palace.






From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿 Pārsa (Old Persian)
تخت جمشید‬ Takht-e Jamshid (Persian)
Gate of All Nations, Persepolis.jpg

Ruins of the Gate of All Nations, Persepolis.
Persepolis is located in Iran

Shown within Iran
Location MarvdashtFars ProvinceIran[1]
Coordinates 29°56′04″N 52°53′29″ECoordinates29°56′04″N 52°53′29″E
Type Settlement
Builder Darius IXerxes I and Artaxerxes I
Material Limestonemud-brickcedar wood
Founded 6th century BC
Periods Achaemenid Empire
Cultures Persian
Events NowruzThe 2,500 Year Celebration of the Persian Empire
Site notes
Condition in ruins
Management Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran
Public access open
Architectural styles Achaemenid
Official name Persepolis
Type Cultural
Criteria i, iii, vi
Designated 1979 (3rd session)
Reference no. 114
State Party Iran
Region Asia-Pacific

Persepolis (Old Persian:𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿,PārsaModern Persian: پرسپولیس) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire(ca. 550–330 BC). It is situated 60 km northeast of the city of Shiraz in Fars ProvinceIran. The earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BC. It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture. UNESCO declared the ruins of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.[2]


The English word Persepolis is derived from Greek Persépolis (Περσέπολις), a compound of Pérsēs (Πέρσης) and pólis (πόλις), meaning “the Persian city” or “the City of the Persians”.

To the ancient Persians, the city was known as Pārsa (Old Persian𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿), which is also the word for “Persia”[3][4] (more accurately, the region of Persis).

Because Persians of Late Antiquity believed Jamshid,[5] an Iranian mythological figure, built its monuments, since the time of the Sasanian period (224–651 AD) the site has been known as Takht-e-Jamshid (Persianتخت جمشید‎ Taxt e Jamšīd[ˌtʰæxtʰed͡ʒæmˈʃiːd], literally “Throne of Jamshid”).

Another modern Persian name for the site was Chel Menar (چهل منار), also transliterated as Chehel Menar and Chilminar, which means “40 columns.”


Persepolis is near the small river Pulvar, which flows into the Kur River.

Ruins of the “Palace of Artaxerxes I“, Persepolis. As is typical of Achaemenid cities, Persepolis was built on a (partially) artificial platform.

The site includes a 125,000 square meter terrace, partly artificially constructed and partly cut out of a mountain, with its east side leaning on Rahmet Mountain. The other three sides are formed by retaining walls, which vary in height with the slope of the ground. Rising from 5–13 metres (16–43 feet) on the west side was a double stair. From there, it gently slopes to the top. To create the level terrace, depressions were filled with soil and heavy rocks, which were joined together with metal clips.


Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BC. André Godard, the French archaeologist who excavated Persepolis in the early 1930s, believed that it was Cyrus the Great who chose the site of Persepolis, but that it was Darius I who built the terrace and the palaces.

Since, to judge from the inscriptions, the buildings of Persepolis commenced with Darius I, it was probably under this king, with whom the scepter passed to a new branch of the royal house, that Persepolis became the capital of Persia proper. As the residence of the rulers of the empire, however, a remote place in a difficult alpine region was far from convenient. The country’s true capitals were SusaBabylon and Ecbatana. This accounts for the fact that the Greeks were not acquainted with the city until Alexander the Great took and plundered it.

Aerial architectural plan of Persepolis.

Darius I’s constructions at Persepolis was carried out parallel to those of the Palace of Susa.[6] According to Gene R. Garthwaite, the Susa Palace served as Darius’ model for Persepolis.[7] Darius I ordered the construction of the Apadana and the Council Hall (Tripylon or the “Triple Gate”), as well as the main imperial Treasury and its surroundings. These were completed during the reign of his son, Xerxes I. Further construction of the buildings on the terrace continued until the downfall of the Achaemenid Empire.[8]According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the Greek historian Ctesias mentioned that Darius I’s grave was in a cliff face that could be reached with an apparatus of ropes.[9]

Around 519 BC, construction of a broad stairway was begun. The stairway was initially planned to be the main entrance to the terrace 20 metres (66 feet) above the ground. The dual stairway, known as the Persepolitan Stairway, was built symmetrically on the western side of the Great Wall. The 111 steps measured 6.9 metres (23 feet) wide, with treads of 31 centimetres (12 inches) and rises of 10 centimetres (3.9 inches). Originally, the steps were believed to have been constructed to allow for nobles and royalty to ascend by horseback. New theories, however, suggest that the shallow risers allowed visiting dignitaries to maintain a regal appearance while ascending. The top of the stairways led to a small yard in the north-eastern side of the terrace, opposite the Gate of All Nations.

Grey limestone was the main building material used at Persepolis. After natural rock had been leveled and the depressions filled in, the terrace was prepared. Major tunnels for sewage were dug underground through the rock. A large elevated water storage tank was carved at the eastern foot of the mountain. Professor Olmstead suggested the cistern was constructed at the same time that construction of the towers began.

The uneven plan of the terrace, including the foundation, acted like a castle, whose angled walls enabled its defenders to target any section of the external front. Diodorus Siculuswrites that Persepolis had three walls with ramparts, which all had towers to provide a protected space for the defense personnel. The first wall was 7 metres (23 feet) tall, the second, 14 metres (46 feet) and the third wall, which covered all four sides, was 27 metres (89 feet) in height, though no presence of the wall exists in modern times.






From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Persepolis - Tachara 01.jpg

Ruins of the Tachara, Persepolis.
General information
Status in ruins
Architectural style Achaemenid architecture
Location Persepolis
MarvdashtFars Province
Country IranIran
Coordinates 29.9344°N 52.88955°E
Technical details
Material stone

The Tachara, or the Tachar Château, also referred to as the Palace of Darius the Great,[1] was the exclusive building of Darius I at PersepolisIran. It is located 70 km northeast of the modern city of Shiraz in Fars Province.

The construction dates back to the time of the Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC). The building has been attributed to Darius I,[2][3] but only a small portion of it was finished under his rule. It was completed after the death of Darius I in 486, by his son and successor, Xerxes I,[4]who called it a taçara in Old Persian, translated to “winter palace”. It was then used by Artaxerxes I. Its ruins are immediately south of the Apadana.

In the 4th century BC, following his invasion of Achaemenid Persia in 330 BC, Alexander the Great allowed his troops to loot Persepolis. This palace was one of the few structures that escaped destruction in the burning of the complex by Alexander the Great’s army.



The Tachara stands back to back to the Apadana, and is oriented southward.[5] Measuring 1,160 square meters (12,500 square feet), it is the smallest of the palace buildings on the Terrace at Persepolis.

As the oldest of the palace structures on the Terrace,[2] it was constructed of the finest quality gray stone. The surface was almost completely black and polished to a glossy brilliance. This surface treatment combined with the high quality stone is the reason for it being the most intact of all ruins at Persepolis today. Although its mud block walls have completely disintegrated, the enormous stone blocks of the door and window frames have survived.

Bas-reliefs from the Tachara.

Its main room is a mere 15.15 m × 15.42 m (49.7 ft × 50.6 ft) with three rows of four columns. A complete window measuring 2.65 m × 2.65 m × 1.70 m (8.7 ft × 8.7 ft × 5.6 ft) was carved from a single block of stone and weighed 18 tons. The door frame was fashioned from three separate monoliths and weighed 75 tons.

Like many other parts of Persepolis, the Tachara has reliefs of tribute-bearing dignitaries. There are sculptured figures of lance-bearers carrying large rectangular wicker shields, attendants or servants with towel and perfume bottles, and a royal hero killing lions and monsters. There is also a bas-relief at the main doorway depicting Darius I wearing a crenellated crown covered with sheets of gold.[2]

The Tachara is connected to the south court by a double reversed stairway. Later under the reign of Artaxerxes III, a new stairway was added to the northwest of the Tachara which is connected to the main hall through a new doorway. On walls of these stairways, there are sculptured representations of figures such as servants, attendants and soldiers dressed in Median and Persian costumes, as well as gift-bearing delegations flanking carved inscriptions.[2]

Darius the Great‘s pride at the superb craftsmanship is evident by his ordering the following inscription on all 18 niches and window frames: Frames of stone, made for the Palace of King Darius.




Islamic Republic of Pakistan

اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان (Urdu)
Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]

Pakistan[b] (Urduپاکِستان‎), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urduاِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان‎), is a country in South Asia. It is the fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people.[18] In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan’s Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures, including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including HindusIndo-GreeksMuslimsTurco-MongolsAfghans, and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid EmpireAlexander III of Macedon, the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Gupta Empire,[25] the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire (partially), and, most recently, the British Empire.

Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam.[26][27] As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the subcontinent‘s struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent homeland for Indian Muslims.[28] It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.[29] In 1973 Pakistan adopted a new constitution establishing, alongside its pre-existing parliamentary republic status, a federal government based in Islamabad consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. The new constitution also stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah.[30]

regional[31][32][33] and middle power,[34][35][36] Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector.[37][38] The Pakistani economy is the 24th-largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and the 41st-largest in terms of nominal GDP (World Bank). It is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world,[39][40] and is backed by one of the world’s largest and fastest-growing middle class.[41][42]

Pakistan’s political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulationterrorismpovertyilliteracy, and corruption.[43][44][45][46] Pakistan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Economic Cooperation Organisation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the Developing Eight, and the G20 developing nationsGroup of 24Group of 77, and ECOSOC. It is also an associate member of CERN. Pakistan is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.


United Arab Emirates


United Arab Emirates

دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة (Arabic)
Dawlat al-Imārāt al-‘Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah
Flag of UAE
Anthem: عيشي بلادي
Īšiy Bilādī
“Long Live my Nation”


Location of  United Arab Emirates  (green)in the Arabian Peninsula  (white)

Location of  United Arab Emirates  (green)in the Arabian Peninsula  (white)

Location of UAECapitalAbu Dhabi
24°28′N54°22′ELargest cityDubai
25°15′N 55°18′EOfficial languagesArabicRecognised national languages

Ethnic groups

ReligionIslamDemonymEmirati[3]GovernmentFederal Absolute monarchy

Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan

Mohammed bin Rashid Al MaktoumLegislatureFederal National CouncilEstablishment from the United Kingdomand the Trucial States


• Sharjah



• Ajman


• Dubai



2 December 1971

• Admission of Ras al-Khaimah to the UAE

10 February 1972Area

• Total

83,600 km2(32,300 sq mi) (114th)

• Water (%)


• 2016 estimate

9,269,612[4] (94th)

• 2005 census


• Density

99/km2(256.4/sq mi) (110th)GDP (PPP)2018 estimate

• Total

$729.043 billion[5](32nd)

• Per capita

$69,896[5] (7th)GDP (nominal)2018 estimate

• Total

$400.902 billion[5](28th)

• Per capita

$38,436[5] (19th)Gini (2008)36
mediumHDI (2015)Increase 0.840[6]
very high · 42ndCurrencyUAE dirham (AED)Time zoneGST (UTC+4)Date formatdd/mm/yyyyDrives on theright[7][8]Calling code+971ISO 3166 codeAEInternet TLD

The United Arab Emirates (/juːˈntɪd ˈærəb ˈɛmɪrɪts/ (About this sound listen)UAEArabicدولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة‎ Dawlat al-Imārāt al-‘Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah), sometimes simply called the Emirates (Arabicالإمارات‎ al-Imārāt), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. In 2013, the UAE’s population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates.[9][10][11]

The country is a federation of seven emirates, and was established on 2 December 1971. The constituent emirates are Abu Dhabi(which serves as the capital), AjmanDubaiFujairahRas al-KhaimahSharjah and Umm al-Quwain. Each emirate is governed by an absolute monarch; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the monarchs (traditionally always the Emir of Abu Dhabi) is selected as the President of the United Arab EmiratesIslam is the official religion of the UAE.[12]

The UAE’s oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world’s seventeenth-largest.[13][14]Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare, education and infrastructure.[15] The UAE’s economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and an international aviation hub.[16][17] Nevertheless, the country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business.

The UAE’s rising international profile has led some analysts to identify it as a regional and middle power.







Shown within Sindh

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LocationLarkanaSindhPakistanCoordinates27°19′45″N 68°08′20″ECoordinates27°19′45″N 68°08′20″ETypeSettlement.Area250 ha (620 acres)[1]HistoryFounded26-25th century BCEAbandoned19th century BCECulturesIndus Valley CivilizationUNESCO World Heritage SiteOfficial nameArchaeological Ruins at MoenjodaroCriteriaCultural: ii, iiiReference138Inscription1980 (4th Session)Area240 ha

Mohenjo-daro (Sindhiموئن جو دڙو‎, Urduموئن جو دڑو‎, IPA[muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ], Sindhi for Mound of the Dead Men;[2]English: /mˌhɛn ˈdɑːr/) is an archaeological site in the province of SindhPakistan. Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley civilization, and one of the world’s earliest major cities, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient EgyptMesopotamiaMinoan Crete, and Norte Chico. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.[3] The site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.




ہView of Granary and Great Hall on Mound F.JPG

A view of Harappa’s Granary and Great Hall
Harappa is located in Punjab, Pakistan

Shown within Punjab, Pakistan

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LocationSahiwal DistrictPunjab, PakistanCoordinates30°37′44″N 72°51′50″ECoordinates30°37′44″N 72°51′50″ETypeSettlementArea150 ha (370 acres)HistoryPeriodsHarappa 1 to Harappa 5CulturesIndus Valley CivilizationSite notesConditionRuinedOwnership PakistanPublic

Harappa (Punjabi pronunciation: [ɦəɽəppaː]Urdu/Punjabiہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in PunjabPakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River which now runs 8 km (5.0 mi) in north. The current village of Harappa is less than 1 km (0.62 mi) from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a legacy railway station from the period of the British Raj, it is today just a small crossroads town of population 15,000.

The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Indus Valley Civilization centered in Sindh and the Punjab, and then the Cemetery H culture.[1] The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied about 150 hectares (370 acres) with clay brick houses at its greatest extent during the Mature Harappan phase (2600–1900 BC), which is considered large for its time.[2][3] Per archaeological convention of naming a previously unknown civilization by its first excavated site, the Indus Valley Civilization is also called the Harappan Civilization.

The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under Yasmeen Safia rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the construction of the Lahore–Multan Railway. In 2005, a controversial amusement park scheme at the site was abandoned when builders unearthed many archaeological artifacts during the early stages of building work. A plea from the Pakistani archaeologist Mohit Prem Kumar to the Ministry of Culture resulted in a restoration of the site.


Soan River


Location and geography

The Soan River is an important stream of the Pothohar region of Pakistan. It drains much of the water of Pothohar. It starts near the small village of Bun in the foothills of Patriata and Murree. It provides water to Simly Dam, which is the water reservoir for Islamabad. Near Pharwala Fort it cuts through a high mountain range, a wonderful natural phenomenon called Soan Cut. No stream can cut such a high mountain, which proves that the Soan was there before the formation of this range. And as the mountain rose through millions of years, the stream continued its path by cutting the rising mountain. Ling stream, following a relatively long course through Lehtrar and Kahuta falls in the Soan near Sihala on southern side of Village Gagri/Bhandar.

Islamabad Highway crosses this stream near Sihala where the famous Kak Pul bridge is constructed over it. The Ling Stream joins the Soan river just before the Kak Pul. Two other famous streams, the Korang River joins it just before the Soan Bridge and Lai stream, joins this stream after the Soan Bridge. After following a tortuous path along a big curve, the stream reaches Kalabagh proposed Dam Site close to Pirpiyahi where it falls into the Indus river. There is a famous railway station by the name of Sohan and a beautiful railway bridge very close to it. This relatively small stream is more than 250 kilometers long. Due to its mountainous course and shallow bed, it is hardly used for irrigation purposes. There are many species of fish in this river like China Rahu, Mahasher, Snakehead, Balm and Catfish are the main species of fish in this stream and Kingfisher birds hunt here too. In addition, there are many species of tortoises and turtles. The marine life of this river has been endangered due to drainage of chemicals of Sihala Industrial State and effluent water of Rawalpindi city into it. There was a time when peoples used to fish in this stream with nets and hooks and bring home handsome catch but now, not only the above species of fish have diminished but also peoples avoid to eat Soan River’s fish as it feeds on contaminated water, which can cause different diseases. Ministry of Environment must take action and treat the effluent water of Rawalpindi city before releasing it into Soan River and also punish and fine those industrialists who are releasing chemicals and other industrial waste into the river and destroying the beautiful marine life of Soan River.


Organisation of Islamic Cooperation


Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

منظمة التعاون الإسلامي  (Arabic)
Organisation de la coopération islamique  (French)
Logo of the OIC
Coat of arms
Motto: To safeguard the interests and ensure the progress and well-being of Muslims
  Member states  Observer states  Suspended states

  Member states
  Observer states
  Suspended states
Administrative centre (Headquarters)  JeddahSaudi Arabia
Official languages
Type Religious
Membership 57 member states
• Secretary-General
Yousef Al-Othaimeen
• Charter signed
25 September 1969
• 2011 estimate
1.6 billion
GDP (PPP) estimate
• Total
18.6 trillion[1]
• Per capita

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OICArabicمنظمة التعاون الإسلامي‎; FrenchOrganisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.6 billion as of 2008. The organisation states that it is “the collective voice of the Muslim world” and works to “safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony”.[2]

The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations and the European Union. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French.


According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.[2]

The emblem of the OIC contains three main elements that reflect its vision and mission as incorporated in its new Charter. These elements are: the Kaaba, the Globe, and the Crescent.

On 5 August 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law.[7]

In June 2008, the OIC conducted a formal revision of its charter. The revised charter set out to promote human rights, fundamental freedoms, and good governance in all member states. The revisions also removed any mention of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. Within the revised charter, the OIC has chosen to support the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international law.


Muhammad Ali Jinnah



Muhammad Ali Jinnah
محمد علی جناح
A view of Jinnah's face late in life

Jinnah in 1945
1st Governor-General of Pakistan
In office
14 August 1947 – 11 September 1948
Monarch George VI
Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Khawaja Nazimuddin
Speaker of the National Assembly
In office
11 August 1947 – 11 September 1948
Deputy Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan
President of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
In office
11 August 1947 – 11 September 1948
Deputy Liaquat Ali Khan
Preceded by Office created
Succeeded by Liaquat Ali Khan
Personal details
Born Mohammedali Jinnahbhai
25 December 1876
KarachiBombay PresidencyBritish India (now SindhPakistan)
Died 11 September 1948 (aged 71)
Karachi, Federal Capital TerritoryDominion of Pakistan[1] (now Sindh, Pakistan)
Resting place Mazar-e-Quaid
Nationality  British India (1876–1947)
 Pakistan (1947–1948)
Political party
Relations See Jinnah family
Children Dina Wadia (by Rattanbai Petit)
Parents Jinnahbhai Poonja (father)
Mithibai Jinnah (mother)
Alma mater The Honourable Society of Lincoln’s Inn
  • Barrister
  • Politician

Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urduمحمد علی جناح‎ ALA-LC: Muḥammad ʿAlī Jināḥ, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyerpolitician, and the founder of Pakistan.[2] Jinnah served as the leader of the All-India Muslim Leaguefrom 1913 until Pakistan’s independence on 14 August 1947, and then as Pakistan’s first Governor-General until his death. He is revered in Pakistan as Quaid-i-Azam (Urduقائد اعظم‎, “Great Leader”) and Baba-i-Qaum (بابائے قوم, “Father of the Nation“). His birthday is considered a national holiday in Pakistan.[3][4]

Born at Wazir Mansion in Karachi, Jinnah was trained as a barrister at Lincoln’s Inn in London. Upon his return to British India, he enrolled at the Bombay High Court, and took an interest in national politics, which eventually replaced his legal practice. Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress in the first two decades of the 20th century. In these early years of his political career, Jinnah advocated HinduMuslim unity, helping to shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the All-India Muslim League, in which Jinnah had also become prominent. Jinnah became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League, and proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims. In 1920, however, Jinnah resigned from the Congress when it agreed to follow a campaign of satyagraha, which he regarded as political anarchy.

By 1940, Jinnah had come to believe that Muslims of the Indian subcontinent should have their own state. In that year, the Muslim League, led by Jinnah, passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding a separate nation. During the Second World War, the League gained strength while leaders of the Congress were imprisoned, and in the elections held shortly after the war, it won most of the seats reserved for Muslims. Ultimately, the Congress and the Muslim League could not reach a power-sharing formula for the subcontinent to be united as a single state, leading all parties to agree to the independence of a predominantly Hindu India, and for a Muslim-majority state of Pakistan.

As the first Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah worked to establish the new nation’s government and policies, and to aid the millions of Muslim migrants who had emigrated from the new nation of India to Pakistan after independence, personally supervising the establishment of refugee camps. Jinnah died at age 71 in September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence from the United Kingdom. He left a deep and respected legacy in Pakistan. Innumerable streets, roads and localities in the world are named after Jinnah. Several universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Jinnah’s name. According to his biographer, Stanley Wolpert, he remains Pakistan’s greatest leader.