Tourism in Iran

Tourism in Iran

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Iran currently ranks 53rd in tourism revenues worldwide.[1][2]

Tourism in Iran is diverse, providing a range of activities from hiking and skiing in the Alborz and Zagros mountains, to beach holidays by the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea, but the main reason that tourist visit Iran is because of Iran Cultural and Iran History and places such as PersepolisNaghsh-e RostaNaghshe Jahan and other places in Iran also we have near 22 World Cultural Heritage . The Iranian government has been making concerted efforts to attract tourists to the various destinations in the country and arrivals have increased during the past few years. Kish Island alone attracts around 1 million visitors per year, the majority of whom are Iranian but the area also attracts many non-Iranian Muslims who like to have beach holidays with Islamic style beaches where men and women use separate beaches .[3][4]

Before the Iranian revolution, tourism was characterized by significant numbers of visitors traveling to Iran for its diverse attractions, the country boasts cultural splendours and a diverse and beautiful landscape suitable for a range of activities.[3] Tourism declined dramatically during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s.

Since the Iranian revolution in 1979, the majority of foreign visitors to Iran have been religious pilgrims and business people. In Iran there are many Shi’iteShrines, the two main ones being Imam Reza Shrine in Mashhad and Fatimah al-Ma’sūmah Shrine in Qom. Each year millions of pilgrims from Iran and other Shi’ite countries visit these holy places.[3][5] Official figures do not distinguish between those traveling to Iran for business and those coming for pleasure, and they also include a large number of diaspora Iranians returning to visit their families in Iran or making pilgrimages to holy Shia sites near MashhadQom and else where .[3]Domestic tourism in Iran is one of the largest in the world.[6]The government continues to project strong rises in visitor numbers and tourism revenue for the foreseeable future, and plans to build an additional 100 hotels to expand its currently limited stock.[3] In 2013, the number of foreign tourists in Iran reached 4.76 million, contributing more than $2 billion to the national economy.[5][7] The strong devaluation of the Iranian Rial since early 2012 is also a positive element for tourism in Iran. Over five million tourists visited Iran in the fiscal year of 2014-2015, ending March 21, four percent more year-on-year.[8]

According to a report published by World Travel and Tourism Council in 2015 the size of its tourism industry – including cultural and ecotourism as major components of it – is estimated as having the potential to create jobs for 1,285,500 and rise by 4.1% pa to 1,913,000 jobs in 2025. Based on the report in the year of 2014 Travel & Tourism directly supported 413,000 jobs (1.8% of total employment). This is expected to rise by 4.4% in 2015 and rise by 4.3% pa to 656,000 jobs (2.2% of total employment) by 2025.[9]

Foreign visitors[edit]

Shapuri House, Shiraz

The most up-to-date figures from the World Tourism Organisation for the origin of visitors to Iran show that building up visitors from the Islamic and wider Asian world will have to start from a low base. Around three-quarters of those entering Iran in 1999 came from Europe.[3] According to the New York Times, unlike most Americans who stopped visiting Iran after the Revolution, European tourists continued to visit the country in similar numbers after the revolution. This was mainly because the Revolution was far more Anti-American and not so much Anti-European.[10] It doesn’t means American can’t travel to Iran, just that Americans must have tour guide with them at all times, this law is also applicable for UK citizens and Canadians.

The majority of the 300,000 tourist visas granted in 2003 were obtained by Asian Muslims, who presumably intended to visit important pilgrimage sites in Mashhadand Qom. Several organized tours from GermanyFrance, the UK and other European countries come to Iran annually to visit archaeological sites and monuments. Iran has 21 places on the world cultural heritages list,[11] because of this lots of cultural tourist come to visit Iran each year.

According to Iranian officials about 1,659,000 foreign tourists visited Iran in 2004 – although government statistics don’t distinguish between tourism, business and religious pilgrims; most came from Asian countries, including the republics of Central Asia, while a small share (about 10%) came from North America and the European Union, including GermanyItalyBulgariaFrance and Belgium.[3] The most popular tourist destinations are Northern IranIsfahanMashhadYazd and Shiraz. There is undoubtedly great scope for increased visitors from the Islamic world, and possibly also from non-Muslim countries with which Iran is developing business and political links, such as China and India.[3]

From 2004, the country experienced a 100-percent growth in foreign tourist arrivals until mid-2008 when the number of foreign arrivals surged up to 2.5 million. Specially, there has been an enormous increase in the number of German tourists traveling to Iran since 2008.[12]

The World Travel and Tourism Council claims that business and personal tourism rose by 11.3% and 4.6%, respectively, in real terms in 2007, with the growth in personal tourism only modestly below that of the preceding year.[3]

In 2011, most of Iran’s international visitors arrived in Iran solely for the purpose of leisure travel. Leisure tourists arriving from abroad are also often relatives of Iranian citizens or expatriates residing outside of Iran returning to visit. Another key segment of international arrival traffic are pilgrims come to pay a visit to one of the many holy sites scattered throughout the country.[2]

The number of international arrivals has been steadily increasing, up from 2.2 million people in 2009 to 3.6 million in 2011, with per capita spending of $1,850 per visit on average.[2][13]

Over five million tourists visited Iran in the fiscal year of 2014-2015, ending March 21, four percent more year-on-year.[8]

Cyrus‘ tomb lies in Pasargadae, a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site. Iran is home to 22 historic sites which have been inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage List.
(Source: EIU)[3] 2004 2005 2006 est.
International tourism, arrivals (‘000) 1,656 1,720 1,769
International tourism, receipts (US$ m) 917 971 1,022

Visa requirement[edit]

In general, Iran has tried to improve its complex and time-consuming visa application process and has begun to issue week-long visas for the nationals of 68 countries at airports. An online hotel reservation system has been developed. Iran will equip all airports with electronic visa facilities by February 2009 to issue online entry permits to foreign nationals.[14] Visas can now be secured electronically and be collected from Iranian consulates or international airports.[15] Iran has 15 road border crossings connecting it with Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Rail lines from Turkey and Turkmenistan can also be used to enter Iran.[3]About 70% of visitors arrived by land in 2002, about 29% by air and less than 1% by sea.[3] The price of internal flights is heavily subsidised, deterring competition and hampering profitability. In April 2005 the Imam Khomeini International Airport was reopened under the management of a consortium of four local airlines—Mahan AirAseman, Caspian Air and Kish Air—although no formal contract appeared to have been awarded.[3]

Infrastructure and the economy[edit]

Dizin ski resort near Tehran.

In the early 2000s the industry still faced serious limitations in infrastructurecommunications, regulatory norms, and personnel training.[16] In late 2003 there were about 640 hotels in Iran and around 63,000 beds.[3]

In FY 2003 Iran had about 69,000 restaurants and 6,000 hotels and other lodging places; about 80 percent of these establishments were in urban areas. Some 875 restaurants and hotels were publicly managed by cooperatives and government organizations. More than 95 percent of restaurants and hotels had fewer than five employees, and only 38 had more than 100 employees. In FY 2002 this sector employed more than 166,000 people, 42,000 of whom worked in places of lodging. Of the 56,618 beds in all hotels, about half were located in three- to five-star hotels.[17]

In recent years, 235 hotels, hotel apartments, motels and guesthouses have become operational nationwide. As at 2010, 400 hotels and 200 hotel apartments are under construction nationwide. Some 66 percent of these projects are underway in the provinces of TehranGilanMazandaranRazavi Khorasan and Isfahan.[18]

Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran[edit]

Reason for domestic travel and overnight stay[2]

  Visiting friends and relatives (49%)
  Sightseeing and entertainment (24%)
  Pilgrimage (17%)
  Medical (6%)
  Other (4%)

Iran’s Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts Organization is responsible for the establishment, development and operation of tourism facilities in Iran, planning for the repair or extension of tourism facilities through direct investment or providing loans to the private sector or entering into partnership with the private sector, issuing licenses and supervising the establishment and administration of hotels and restaurants and travel agencies and qualification and rating of these units.[19]

Area considered for further expansion in the tourism sector in Iran are eco tourismcoastlinesrestoration of historical relicshandicraft townships, and health tourism (e.g. water therapy).[6][18] 30,000 people come to Iran each year to receive medical treatment (2012).[20] As a matter of fact, Iran might become the leading country in the Islamic World when it comes to the medical tourism field due to a number of reasons that include the country’s unique geographical position, the fluctuation of Iranian currency that leads to lower prices in healthcare services, as well as the development in medical research and technology. The rapid growth rate of the healthcare system which, according to the World Tourism Organization, has increased of 5% in last decade, seems to indicate that in the future Iran will be one of the most visited countries by medical tourists, above all coming from the neighbouring countries, such as Arzebaijan, Iraq and Persian Gulf States.[21]

Officials state that Iran has in recent years earned about US$1bn a year from tourism.[3] Close to 1.8% of national employment is generated in the tourism sector.[2] Weak advertising, unstable regional conditions, a poor public image in some parts of the world, and absence of efficient planning schemes in the tourism sector have all hindered the growth of tourism.[3]

Iran’s ’20-Year Vision’ document projects investment of over $32 billion in the country’s tourism sector and tragets 20 million tourists by 2025.[22][23] In order to encourage domestic and foreign direct investment in this sectorthe 50 percent tax exemption previously granted to tourism enterprises has been extended to include five-star hotels.[24] In 2016 Iran announced that it will grant 100 percent tax holidays between five and 13 years depending on the region for hoteliers investing in Iran.[25] Tariffs for utilities comply with industrial ones.[18] Investment in Iran’s free trade zones are exempt from taxes for up to 20 years.[18] As of 2016, international hotel operators investing in Iran are Rotana (Abu Dhabi), Accor (France), Meliá (Spain) and Steigenberger (Germany) among others.[26][27]

Outward tourism[edit]

Iran Air is Iran’s national airline
(Source: EIU)[3] 2004 2005 2006 est.
International tourism, departures (‘000) 3,478 3,648 3,986
International tourism, expenditure (US$ m) 4,353 1,380 1,579

Traditionally, only a small number of wealthy Iranian tourists traveled abroad, and the majority of the trips were business departures, mostly to neighboring states in the Persian Gulf and the wider Middle East (1 million each year), Central Asia and Turkey (~1 million). Although this is likely to continue to characterize much Iranian travel abroad, since the change of regime in Iraq in 2003, Iranians from all walks of life have visited their western neighbor. In addition, a large proportion of Iranians traveling abroad are likely to be visiting family, especially in Europe, the US and Australia (~1 million).[3] Up until early 2012, because the Iranian rial was overvalued, the Iranian government was subsidizing its travelers abroad (2010). In 2011, some 27 million travelers and businessmen passed the Iranian custom departments.[28] Following the Iranian subsidy reform plan, airfares in Iran went up by 65% in 2012.[29] In 2012, Iranians spent $18.5 billion on outward tourism.[30] They spent $12 billion to purchase airplane tickets from foreign airliners between the years 2012-2015.[31]

See also[edit]

 

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International Rankings of Iran

International Rankings of Iran

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Agriculture

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Number of agricultural machinery: tractors 22 190 World Bank 258,000 tractors in operation 2003
Irrigated land per capita 14 173 CIA World Factbook ~1,153 km2 per 1 million people 2003
Total agricultural land 15 199 World Bank 616,000 km2 of agricultural land 2005
Total agricultural land per capita 57 199 World Bank ~9 km2 of agricultural land per 1,000 people 2005
Area of permanent crops 18 181 Food and Agriculture Organization 2,002,000 hectares of permanent crops, (29.4334 hectares per 1,000 people; Per capita ranking: 69/181[1]) 2000
Arable land as % of total land area 109 199 World Bank 9.84% of land area is arable (16,100,000 hectares[2]) 2005
Permanent cropland area as % of total land area 110 187 World Bank 0.92% of country’s landmass is used as permanent cropland 2005
Index of agricultural production 13 149 United Nations Index based on agricultural output for 1989-91 taken as 100; Index of Iran: 141 1996-98
Annual diesel consumption in agriculture 7 107 United Nations Annual diesel consumption in agriculture of 3,341,000 tonnes 2005
Agricultural electricity consumption per capita 18 110 United Nations 241.3 kWh per capita/Year 2005
Cereal production 13 149 World Resources Institute 141,000 tonnes of cereal produced annually 2001
Meat production per capita 73 149 United Nations ~21.1 kg/person annually 1998

Communication and information technology[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
E-readiness 68 70 Economist Intelligence Unit 2009
Number of Internet Users 15 195 Internet World Stats[3] 70.0% of population use internet 2017
Total number of broadband internet users 44 48 International Telecommunication Union 300,000 broadband internet users or ~0.41% of population; more info: Internet in Iran 2008
Digital Opportunity Index 105 120 International Telecommunication Union[4] 2007
Telephone Lines in Use 10 100 CIA World Factbook 30,818,011 Telephone lines in use; 80% of telephony system had become digitized by 2004[5] 94.8% of homes had telephone lines in 2010[6] 2016
Mobile Phones in Use 22 56 United Nations 74,219,000 Mobile phone users 2016
Investment in telecommunication infrastructure as % of total revenue 10 190 World Bank 73.68% of total revenue in telecommunication sector was reinvested for expansion of telecommunication & Cyberinfrastructure 2005
E-government Readiness 102 193 United Nations Measure of a country’s e-Government capabilities 2010
E-participation of Public 117 193 United Nations Measure of a nation’s population participation in e-Government 2010
Number of daily newspapers & periodicals 14 124 United Nations 112 daily newspapers & periodicals present. See also: Media of Iran. 2000
Number of non-daily newspapers & periodicals 8 91 United Nations 906 non-daily newspapers & periodicals present 2000
Number of Television Broadcast Stations 67 228 CIA World Factbook In 1997 there were 28 TV broadcast stations plus 450 repeaters in Iran. By 2010, there were 74 high power broadcast stations, 430 medium power and 5,000 low power broadcast stations in addition to 120 TV studios, 47 TV channels & 50 radio channels. Iran switched from SECAM to PAL in 1998. By 2015 Iran planned to complete its switchover to digital TV.[7] More info: Countries by color TV introduction & Countries by TV introduction. 1997
Number of Internet Service Providers (ISP) 9 165 CIA World Factbook 100 ISPs in operation 2002
List of countries by number of Internet hosts 120 190 CIA World Factbook There are 2,860 Internet hosts in Iran.[citation needed] 2008
Number of websites on national domain 58 World Webometrics Iran has 310,000 websites on its national domain (dotIR); Iran ranks 32nd globally in terms of total number of websites[8] 2009
Internet Speed 174 181 Speedtest.net Hamadan is the province of Iran with the fastest upload/download speed at 0.32/1.09 Mbps and I.P.M. is the fastest ISP in Iran with 0.76/2.87. 2010
Google Transparency Report World Google Iran censors internet traffic. [3] 2010

Demographics[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Birth Rate 96 195 United Nations 20.3 Births per 1000 population/Year 2005-10
Death Rate 183 195 United Nations 5.3 Deaths per 1000 population/year. Top ten causes of death in Iran:
1. Ischaemic heart disease, 2. Road traffic accident, 3. Stroke, 4. Perinatal conditions, 5. Hypertension, 6. Stomach cancer, 7. COPD, 8. Diarrhea, 9. Inflammatory heart disease, 10. Lower respiratory tract infection.[9][10][11] More info: List of most important causes of death for humans.
2005-10
Nations with least divorce rate 25 World United Nations Crude divorce rate of 0.94 per 1,000 population; By 2009 Iran’s divorce rate had reached 1.7 per 1,000 people[12] 2004
Cities Proper by Population 17 61 United Nations City proper of Tehran; population: 7,873,000; Area: 760 km2; Population density: 10,359 Persons/km2 2007
Urban agglomerations by Population 28 100 United Nations Tehran population agglomerate with a population of 7,873,000 2007
Urbanization by country 65 193 CIA World Factbook 74.4% of population is urban; 982 cities & 68,122 villages[13] 2005-10
Urbanization Rate 82 193 CIA World Factbook Urbanization rate of 1.78% 2005-10
List of countries by infant mortality rate 119 195 United Nations Infant mortality rate of 30.6 & Under-5 mortality rate of 35.5 /1000 live births 2006
Maternal mortality rate 92 136 United Nations 37/100,000 Pregnancies; By 2008 Iran’s MMR became 27.8/100,000 Pregnancies[14] 1985-99
Population 17 223 United Nations Population of 74,196,000 or approximately 1.09% of the world’s population. More info: Past and future population by country. 2009
Life Expectancy 129 World CIA World Factbook Overall life expectancy of 74 years; Male: 72.7 years; Female: 75.5 years 2017
Population Growth Rate 96 230 United Nations Population growth rate of 1.35% 2005-10
Population Density 160 239 United Nations Population density of 45.017 persons/km2 2005
Net Migration Rate 126 154 CIA World Factbook Migrants/1000 population: -2.62 2009
Fertility Rate 129 223 United Nations Total fertility rate of 2.04 births/woman; Iran has reduced its fertility rate of 6.6 births/woman in 1970 to the replacement level of 2 in 2005 in a revolutionary female health program & successfully stopping Iran’s first baby-boom; This reduction of fertility rate is one of the fastest in history of mankind[15][16][17][18][19][20] Total fertility rate declined from 7 births/woman in 1979 to 1.9 births/woman in 2006[21] 2005-10
Adolescent fertility rate: Births/1000 females aged 15-19 years 139 185 World Bank 19.14 births/1000 females aged 15–19; ranked from highest rates to lowest; more info: UNICEF statistics 2005
Immigrant population 21 192 United Nations Immigrants in Iran: 1.05% of total world immigrant population or 1,959,000; 2.861% of Iran’s national population 2005
Foreign refugees population 1 110 United Nations Host to the world’s largest and longest staying foreign refugees population,[22][23][24][25][26] mostly Iraqi and Afghan refugees. More info: Afghan Refugees in Iran. As of 2010 there were more than 3 million Afghan refugees living in Iran, and in the prior three decades Iran was host to an average refugee population of over 5 million.[27] 1999
Median age 122 230 CIA World Factbook Total median age: 30.3; male median age: 30; female median age: 30.5. 2017

Economy[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
GDP (PPP) 18 193 World Bank GDP (PPP)= $1.352 trillion. 2016
GDP (PPP) per capita 67 187 International Monetary Fund GDP (PPP) per capita= $18,077. 2016
GDP (nominal) 27 182 World Bank GDP (nominal)= $393.4 billion. 2016
GDP (nominal) per capita 96 187 International Monetary Fund GDP (nominal) per capita= $4,683. 2016
GDP (PPP) per person employed 36 87 CIA World Factbook US $39,696 per person employed; 33% of the total population is employed 2009
GNI per capita (PPP) 57 World World Bank Average national income (PPP) of $11,490 per person/year 2009
GNI per capita (nominal) 89 World World Bank GNI (nominal) per capita=US $6,550. 2015
GDP growth rate 68 182 International Monetary Fund GDP growth of 20.6% (Not adjusted) 2009
GDP (real) growth rate 18 217 International Monetary Fund Adjusted GDP (real) growth rate of 6.54%; See also: 1990-2007 annualized GDP growth rate 2016
Real GDP per capita growth rate 99 174 World Bank Iran’s real GDP per capita growth rate=3.1% 2006
World’s largest consumer markets 35 World United Nations Size of Iran’s consumer market in 2013 = $190.776 billion 2013
Starting a Business Index 48 World World Bank The index measures the ease of starting up a new business 2010
Ease of Doing Business Index 124 190 World Bank The survey was done indirectly &/or by estimation 2018
Business freedom index 77 World Freedom Meta-Index Index measuring freedom for private businesses 2011
Prime lending rate 76 153 CIA World Factbook Prime lending rate of 12% 2007
Human Development Index 69 188 United Nations / UN Human Development Report 2010 Human development index of 0.702; Categorized among High-HDI countries; Iran ranks 3rd worldwide in terms of progress in its Human Development Index for the past three decades[28] 2016
Human Poverty Index 59 135 United Nations / Complete Report HPI is a composite index measuring deprivations in the three basic dimensions: a long & healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living; Calculated using HPI-1 formula; Ranked from least poverty index to maximum poverty index; More info: HDR for Iran 2009
National wealth per capita 88 World World Bank Iran’s per capita national wealth=US $38,000 2000
Income equality 72 World United Nations Iran had a Gini coefficient of 38.8. 2014
Least Inflation Rates 83 World IMF Inflation rate of ~8%[29] More info: Iranian online consumer price monitor 2010
Government Budget 32 188 CIA World Factbook Government revenue of $97.7 billion in 2009; 2010-2011 Total Government Budget of $347 billion [30] More info: Government of Iran 2009
Highest government budget surplus 4 World CIA World Factbook Government budget surplus of 3.9 billion US dollars 2009
List of countries by received FDI 60 World CIA World Factbook $44.640 billion of Foreign Direct Investment in Iran by foreign entities. 2015
List of countries by FDI abroad 65 World CIA World Factbook 993 million dollars invested by Iranian entities outside of Iran 2008
Size of Sovereign Wealth Funds 20 36 Sovereign Wealth Funds Institute[31] Sovereign wealth fund of 23 billion dollars in oil stabilization fund (OSF); see also: National Development Fund 2009
Investment as % of GDP 36 145 CIA World Factbook Share of gross fixed investment as % of GDP: 27.7% 2008
Exports per capita 73 157 CIA World Factbook $1,211 of exports per capita/year 2014
Tax revenue as % of GDP 163 World Heritage Foundation Government tax revenue as % of GDP=7.3%. More info: Taxation in Iran 2008
Current account balance 4 191 International Monetary Fund Annual account balance of +70.797 billion dollars in surplus 2010
current account balance as % of GDP 38 World International Monetary Fund Current account balance as % of GDP= +4.05%; Iran has the world’s 38th largest trade surplus as % of GDP 2008
General government final consumption expenditure 38 145 World Bank General government final consumption is the total government expenditure excluding capital investments; Iran: 15,826,440,000 constant 2000 US$ 2005
Gold reserve of government 8 World International Monetary Fund 907 tonnes of Gold reserves; More info: Gold reserves of IranIranian Crown Jewels 2012
Foreign exchange reserves 20 World World Bank $120 billion of forex reserves, More info: Central Bank of Iran 2012
List of countries by imports 46 222 CIA World Factbook Annual import bill of $66.97 billion 2012
List of countries by exports 52 222 CIA World Factbook Total annual exports of $66.37 billion 2012
Unemployment rate 75 World United Nations Unemployment rate of 11.3%; Ranked from highest unemployment rate to lowest. 2009
Difficulty of hiring index 10 154 Doing Business & World Bank Measures the difficulty to hire workers; Index of Iran: 78 2004
Difficulty of firing index 118 154 Doing Business & World Bank Measures the difficulty to fire workers; Index of Iran: 10 2004
Primary exports as % of manufactured exports 9 117 World Bank Primary export is 93% of total manufactured exports, mostly oil 2000
Compensation of employees as % of total business expenses 14 135 World Bank 47.14% of business expense is employee compensation 2005
GDP sector composition 35 197 CIA World Factbook Agriculture=11.2%; Industry= 41.7% ; Service= 47.1%; Share of oil related activity in total GDP is less than 10%[32] 2005
Real Growth in Total Trade 73 World World Bank The average annual growth rate of the total exports and imports in goods and services at constant 2000 U.S. dollars; This indicator reflects the trade expansion of a country over the period 2008
Public debt as % of GDP 114 World CIA World Factbook Total public debt stands at 16.2% of GDP; Ranked from highest total government debt to lowest. 2010
Total external debt 84 World CIA World Factbook Ranked from the highest debt to lowest; Total external debt of 12.84 billion dollars; Or 3.7% of GDP; Or $166 per person; 4th least indebted country in the world by external debt to GDP ratio 2010
Total Debt Service 33 135 World Bank Approximately $2.52 billion paid/year to foreign creditors in interest and principal repayment 2005
$ external debt as /$1000 of GDP 174 186 CIA World Factbook $61.60/$1000 of GDP 2006
Labour force 22 185 CIA World Factbook Total labour force of 24.35 million people, more info: Labor and tax laws in Iran 2008
% of Industry in total Labour force 15 139 World Bank 30.4% of labour force work in industry 2005
% of Agriculture in total labour force 47 139 World Bank 24.9% of labour force work in agriculture 2005
% of female employment in industry 5 130 World Bank 28.4% of all industrial labour force is female 2005
% of female employment in agriculture 29 130 World Bank 34.2% of all agricultural labour force is female 2005
Economic activity growth of females 6 156 International Labour Organization 34% growth of female participation in economic activities 1990–2000
Retirement pension as % of GDP 56 58 United Nations/IMF Iran spends 1.1% of its GDP on national pensions; 5% of Iran’s population is 65 yrs old & above; In 2009 for every retiree there were fifteen active workers & by 2050 this ratio is going to fall to three workers per retiree 2009
Index of Economic Freedom 171 179 2008 Heritage Foundation Index of economic freedom[33] 2011
World’s highest central bank interest rates 75 World CIA World Factbook Annualized interest rate set by the central bank to charge commercial banks for short term loans; More info: Banking and Insurance in Iran 2011
World’s highest commercial bank interest rates 76 World CIA World Factbook Averaged annualized interest rate charged by the commercial banks on new loans to their most trustworthy customers; More info: Bank Melli Iran 2007
Gross savings as % of Gross National Income 6 172 World Bank Gross savings of 41.57% of GNI 2005
Highest Marginal Tax Rate on High Income 6 109 World Bank 6th highest marginal tax rate for individual income exceeding $114,101.4; More info: Labour and tax laws in Iran 2006
Taxes on income, profits and capital gains as % of total taxes 11 137 World Bank Ratio: 58.84% 2005
Number of micro, small & medium enterprises 21 115 World Bank 1,255,382 Enterprises 1997
Number of micro, small & medium enterprises/1000 people 68 113 World Bank 20.62 Enterprises/1000 people 1997
International aid received as % of national GDP 120 129 OECD International aid received is less than 0.1% of GDP; ~$100 million; The only international aid received is as part of international fight against drug trafficking and Illegal drug trade, chiefly opiates smuggling 2002
Largest Islamic Banking Sector 1 World The Banker Iran has the world’s largest Islamic banking sector valued at 235.5 billion US dollars[34][35][36] 2009
Least valued currency units 4 World International Monetary Fund Iranian rial is the world’s 4th least valued currency unit; More info: Iranian rial 2009
World’s largest black markets 19 World Havocscope Black Markets Database[37] Size of Iran’s black market is over US $10.64 billion; Largest black markets in Iran are that of alcohol smuggling ($912.5 million), Drug smuggling ($8.5 billion), Petroleum smuggling ($1.3 billion), Cigarette smugglingProstitutionArms traffickingCorruptionunlicensed movies and unlicensed software copies.[38][39] More info: Smuggling in Iran 2009
Freedom from taxes index 69 World Freedom Meta-Index Index measuring tax free status of different countries 2011
Entrepreneurship 67 177 Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index See also: Venture capital in Iran and Technology start-ups in Iran 2012

Education[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Adult literacy rate 47 World United Nations 91% of adult population (age 15 & above) is literate; Total illiteracy rate of 6.2% of population in 2002 improving from 52.5% in 1976[40] Total literacy rate (age 6 & above): 92.7% in 2002;[13] More info: Functional illiteracy & AliteracyScientific literacy & School leaving age 2011
Education Index 74 176 United Nations Iran’s educational index= 0.683; More info: Technological literacy & Scientific literacy & Information literacy & Cognitive science 2015
Book titles published per year 9 World Book titles published per country per year 72,871 Book titles published annually;[41][42] More info: Iran Book News Agency 2014
Number of book titles published in applied sciences 16 99 United Nations 2,426 Book titles in applied sciences published 1999
Number of book titles published in arts & recreation 18 93 United Nations 733 Book titles in arts & recreation published 1999
Number of book titles published in psychology & philosophy 13 83 United Nations 706 Book titles in psychology & philosophy published 1999
Number of book titles published in theology 2 96 United Nations 4,504 Book titles in theology published 1999
Number of book titles published in literature 54 98 United Nations 247 Book titles in literature published 1999
Number of book titles published in generalities 12 88 United Nations 612 Book titles in generalities published 1999
Number of book titles published in philology 3 91 United Nations 1,486 Book titles in linguistics published 1999
Number of book titles published in pure sciences 7 94 United Nations 1,844 Book titles in pure sciences published 1999
Number of book titles published in social sciences 30 99 United Nations 1,319 Book titles in social sciences published 1999
Number of Library Books Per capita 72 81 United Nations ~6 library books per 1,000 people 2004
Literacy rate of men aged 15-24 54 155 United Nations 98.1% of male population 15-24 yrs old are literate 2005
Female to Male ratio of Primary School enrollment 1 197 United Nations 1.223 females per one male student[43] 2005
Number of Secondary education students 8 185 World Bank 9,942,201 students in secondary schools 2005
Female/Male ratio of literacy rate in 15-24yrs old population 87 155 United Nations Female/male ratio of literate 15–24 years old population: 0.99. Total female literacy rate of 76.2% in 2002, improving from 25.5% in 1976.[15] 2005
Number of pupils in primary education 17 193 World Bank 7,307,056 students in primary level schools 2005
Education enrollment at tertiary level 22 200 United Nations 1,714,433 students at tertiary level of education; 64% of university students are female[13] 2002
Education enrollment at tertiary level per capita 68 188 United Nations 26.159 tertiary level students per 1,000 people 2002
Education spending as % of GDP 58 132 United Nations 4.9% of GDP is spent on education 2003
Education budget as % of total government budget 19 161 World Bank Education budget is 22.85% of total government budget 2005
Total school life expectancy 58 110 United Nations Citizens on average attend 11.3 years of schooling 1999
Illiteracy rate among population over 15 years old 52 138 United Nations 20.9% of population over 15 years old are illiterate 2003
School Success Index Rank 29 158 Save the ChildrenState of the World’s Mothers report2009 The index is a calculated composite measure of indicators for early childhood growth & development, Under-5 survival rate, nutrition, adult female literacy rate, total fertility rate, grade 1 repetition rate, % of children out of school & children proficiency at mathematics, reading & fine motor skills; Ranking is among 43 developed & 115 developing countries, totaling 158; More info: Study skills 2009
Country Rank by World’s Top Universities 55 World Webometrics Iran has one university among the list of world’s top 1000 universities & 30 among the top 5,000 universities; More info: National rankings of Iranian universitiesComplete list for top 12,000 universities 2009
World’s largest universities by enrollment 3 World List of largest universities by enrollment Islamic Azad University is the world’s third largest university with more than 1.3 million students enrolled, it is also the world’s largest private university 2010
World’s Top Engineering Universities 184 World Quacquarelli Symonds University of Tehran stands at 184th and Sharif University of Technology stands at 244th place among the world’s top engineering universities 2007
Academic Ranking of World Universities 401 500 ARWU University of Tehran is ranked at 401st among the world top 500 universities. More info: ARWU 2010 Report. 2010
Ratio of % of universities among top 500 per % share of total GDP by country 34 World Ministry of Education (New Zealand) Ranking based on overall world universities ranking equalized against size of national economy to control for the fact that more wealthy nations can support their higher education systems to a greater degree due to higher funding availability, thus measuring the quality of higher education adjusted for money spent on it. 2009
Quality of math & science education 35 World World Economic Forum Measure of math and science education quality[44] 2011

Energy[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Energy consumption per capita 57 World World Resources Institute 23,748 kW·h/year/person. In 2010, per capita energy intensity in Iran was 15 times higher than in Japan and 10 times higher than the European Union.[45] 2003
Primary energy consumption 13 World International Energy Agency Energy, production of ~13.119 quadrillion BTU/year (per 2000 U.S. dollars).[46] By 2009 Iran stood at 11th worldwide, annually consuming 204.8 million TOE.[47] 2006
Primary energy production 6 World International Energy Agency Energy, consumption of 7.686 quadrillion BTU/year (per 2000 U.S. dollars)[46] 2006
Energy intensity 1 World International Energy Agency[45] 2.5 times the Middle Eastern average in 2010; 14,120 tonnes of oil equivalent/$1 million of GDP in 2006.[46] More info: Fuel smuggling in Iran. 2010
Total proven coal reserves 12 59 United Nations 11,143 million tonnes of reserves 2005
Total coal production 32 73 United Nations 1,330,000 tonnes per year 2005
Aviation gasoline exports 6 34 United Nations Ranked among exporting countries; Iran: 10,000 tonnes/year 2005
Gross inland availability of aviation gasoline 4 131 United Nations 95,000 tonnes of aviation gasoline available per year inside country 2005
Proven natural gas reserves 1 209 CIA World Factbook Total proven reserves of 33.1 trillion cubic meters or 15.8% of the world’s total reserves.[47] More info: Natural gas fields of Iran & Natural gas reserves in Iran. Market value of Iran’s total natural gas reserves at comparative international energy price of $75 per barrel of oil stands at ~US $4 trillion.[48] 2012
Proven natural gas reserves per capita 5 71 CIA World Factbook 364,609 cubic meters per person 2005
Natural gas production 4 183 CIA World Factbook Annual production of 131.2 billion cubic meters.[47] Annual production of ~220 billion cubic meters (0.6 billion cubic meters/day) in 2010.[49] 2007
Natural gas consumption 3 183 CIA World Factbook Total annual natural gas consumption of 131.7 billion m3. Iran has the world’s fastest growth rate in natural gas consumption.[47] Iran by 2011 had 80 years’ worth of gas reserves based on 2010 production levels.[50] More info: Peak gasNatural gas by country. 2009
Natural gas exports 25 182 CIA World Factbook Annual exports of 6.2 billion cubic meters 2007
Natural gas imports 27 182 CIA World Factbook Annual imports of 6.1 billion cubic meters 2007
Natural gas consumption by households 5 67 United Nations Annual household natural gas usage of 1,243,256 Tera-joules 2005
Proven oil reserves 3 97 CIA World Factbook Total proven reserves of 136.2 billion barrels (2.165×1010 m3), or ~ 1,750 barrels (278 m3) of oil per Iranian citizen. Market value of Iran’s total oil reserves at international crude price of $75 per barrel stands at ~US $10 trillion.[48] 2007
Oil production 4 210 CIA World Factbook Daily production of ~4.2 million barrels (670,000 m3) 2008
Oil R/P ratio 1 World Statistical Review of World Energy Iran has the world’s highest R/P ratio of 89.4 years for oil. 2010
Oil consumption 15 208 CIA World Factbook Daily consumption of 1.63 million barrels (259,000 m3) 2006
Oil exports 8 205 CIA World Factbook Daily exports of 2.21 million barrels (351,000 m3). More info: Iranian oil bourseOPEC Annual Statistical BulletinCountries importing Iranian oil in 2011. 2009
Oil exports per capita 20 84 United Nations 1.94 tonnes exported annually per person (~12 barrels (1.9 m3)/person/year) 2005
Oil imports 52 206 CIA World Factbook Iran imports 153,600 barrels (24,420 m3) of oil per day 2004
Total hydrocarbon reserves (Combined reserves of oil and gas) 2 World Oil & Gas Journal[51] Total hydrocarbon reserves of Iran including both oil and natural gas measured in barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) stands at 301.7 billion, just after Saudi Arabia‘s 302.5 billion BOE and ahead of Russia‘s 198.3 billion BOE. Alternatively, Iranian government puts the total reserve at 324 billion BOE.[52] Iran is the only country with large reserves of both gas and oil. It is also the only country with large hydrocarbon reserves, which has the potential to massively increase its production due to its current low production levels.[53][54] 2010
Nuclear power rankings of nations 27 World IAEA Current Iranian nuclear generated electricity capacity is: 915 Mwh. Iran plans to produce 23,000 MWh of nuclear generated electricity in the future[55] using 19 nuclear power plants.[56] More info: Iranian nuclear program and Nuclear facilities in Iran. 2012
Uranium reservesUranium by country World World Nuclear Association As of 2009 Iran had an estimated total uranium reserves of 20,300 tonnes recoverable at a cost of less than $260/kg.[57] As per WNA, Iran’s 2012 uranium requirement for power generation was 170 tonnes.[58] 2009
Electricity production 19 210 CIA World Factbook ~193.3 terawatt-hours/year. More info: Electricity in Iran through history and List of power stations in Iran. 2007
Electricity consumption 20 190 CIA World Factbook Consumption of 136.2 terawatt-hours/year, or 224 watt-hours per person. All settlements with 20 or more families are electrified.[59] 2005
Electricity exports 39 186 CIA World Factbook Annual exports of ~2.8 terawatt-hours. Iran’s electricity exports rose to 5.5 TWh in 2009.[60] 2006
Electricity imports 46 188 CIA World Factbook Electricity imports of 2.54 TWh/year 2006
Electricity production per capita 86 214 CIA World Factbook ~2,747 kWh per capita/year 2006
Electric power transmission losses as % of total output 30 131 World Bank Electrical transmission loss: 16.88% of output 2004
Natural gas consumption by power plants 5 97 United Nations Annual usage of 1,379,527 tera-joules by power stations 2005
Installed wind power capacity 35 76 World Wind Energy Association Current installed capacity of 82 MWh. Iran’s installed Wind power capacity growth rate= 49.4%. More info: Wind farms of Iran. 2008
Largest hydroelectric power stations 44 48 List of largest hydroelectric power stations Power stations with 2000 MW capacity or more. Iran operates three such dams out of 48 in the world. Total number of dams: 186 operational, 91 under construction. Ranked 3rd worldwide in terms of dams under construction.[13] More info: Energy in Iran and List of reservoirs and dams in Iran. 2010
Diesel usage by power plants 6 171 United Nations 2,708,000 tonnes of diesel used by thermal power plants 2005
Annual refinery output of diesel 13 124 United Nations Annual production of 24,443,000 tonnes of diesel 2005
Electricity produced from natural gas 6 96 World Bank 125,393 GWh produced from natural gas 2004
Inland availability of diesel oils 11 191 United Nations 21,976,000 tonnes of diesel available per year 2005
Household consumption of diesel 8 149 United Nations 6,374,000 tonnes/year 2005
Private investment in public energy infrastructure 13 93 World Bank $650,000,000/year 2004
Kerosene consumption by household & other consumers 4 174 United Nations 6,043,000 tonnes/year 2005
Kerosene imports per year 3 166 United Nations 1,105,000 tonnes imported/year 1997
Coal imports 50 110 United Nations 520,000 tonnes imported/year 2005
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Exports 12 93 United Nations 1,791,000 tonnes exported/year 2005
Total motor gasoline (petrol) production 16 121 United Nations Annual gasoline production of 11,154,000 tonnes 2005
Motor gasoline energy balance requirement 2 205 United Nations Energy balance requirement of 6,677,000 tonnes of gasoline (petrol). Energy balance requirement is the amount of energy a country needs to import for its needs due to its local non-availability because of production shortage. 2005
Motor gasoline (petrol) imports 5 200 United Nations 6,677,000 tonnes imported/year 2005
Natural gasoline production 4 21 United Nations 1,855,000 tonnes produced 2005
Residual fuel oil consumption by households 3 116 United Nations 1,619,000 tonnes/year consumed by households 2005
Jet fuel imports 64 166 United Nations Annual importation of 80,000 tonnes of jet fuel 1990
Annual output of jet fuel 37 108 United Nations Annual production of 850,000 tonnes jet fuel 2005
Least expensive diesel by country 2 World German government Diesel fuel prices in Iran are the second cheapest in the world. One liter of diesel costs in commodity barter comparison: ~0.3 of a hen egg.[61] 2005
Least expensive gasoline by country 8 World German government Gasoline (petrol) fuel prices are the 8th cheapest in the world. Iran spends 8% of its total state revenue, subsidizing fuel for the domestic market.[61] 2005
Energy Development Index 2 64 International Energy Agency Index measures a country’s per capita energy consumption, use of modern fuels and population’s access to electricity. 2011

Environment and ecology[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Environmental Sustainability Index 132 146 Yale University Survey was done indirectly and/or by estimation. 2005
Greenhouse emissions per capita 74 World World Resources Institute Based on data for carbon dioxidemethanenitrous oxideperfluorocarbonhydrofluorocarbonsulfur hexafluoride emissions as well as effects of land use change. Iran = 7.6 tonnes of Carbon dioxide equivalent per person/year. 2000
Number of species under threat of extinction 37 158 United Nations 54 species under threat of extinction 1999
Happy Planet Index 81 178 New Economics Foundation The Happy Planet Index is a measure of the environmental efficiency of supporting citizens’ well-being. Iran’s index: 47.23 2009
Environmental Performance Index 78 153 Yale University/Columbia University Iran’s index=60.0.[62] More info: Over-consumption and Dashboard of Sustainability. 2010
Total renewable water resources 58 151 CIA World Factbook Iran has total renewable water resources of 137.5 cubic kilometers. More info: Water securityWater resources, and Peak water 2008
Water availability per capita 116 141 United Nations Annual fresh water availability of 630 cubic meters per person. Measure of internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation). 2001
Biodiversity Richness 13 53 World Conservation Monitoring Centre Biodiversity Richness Index: 2 1994
Carbon efficiency 28 141 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center 2.36 tonnes of CO2 emissions/$ of GDP 2005
Coral reefs area 19 28 United Nations 700 km2 of coral reefs 2005
Endangered species protection 71 141 CITES 69.6% of CITES requirement met 2000
Land use statistics by country 16 176 CIA World Factbook Total cultivated land area of 221,400 square kilometers 2005
Carbon dioxide emissions per capita 70 210 United Nations 5.8 tonnes of CO2 emissions per person. More info: CO2 emissions per person map 2003
Total carbon dioxide emissions 11 210 United Nations 466,976,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions or ~ 1.6% of the world’s total emissions 2006
Total forest area 47 220 United Nations 110,750 square kilometers of forests 2007
Fresh water withdrawal 11 168 CIA World Factbook Total annual water withdrawal of 72.88 km3. Annual per capita withdrawal of 1,048 m3. Rank of 19th by per capita withdrawal; 91% agriculture, 7% domestic, 2% industrial share of withdrawal. 2000
Industrial water pollution 14 129 World Bank Metal industry contribution to total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) emissions: 15.55% 2003

General[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Total area 18 233 United Nations Area of 1,628,750 km2; or ~1.1% of World’s total area 2010
Deadliest earthquakes in history 8 World List of natural disasters by death toll 856 Damghan earthquake killed more than 200,000 people in Iran on December 22, 856. 856
Countries by number of casualties from earthquakes 2 World United Nations Iran has the world’s second highest number of casualties due to earthquakes per one million residents. More info: The natural disasters risk index. 2010
Number of major earthquakes 1 World United Nations Iran has the world’s highest number of major earthquakes. Tremors occur daily somewhere in the country. More info: online earthquake monitoring (with GMT date & time stamp). 2010
Number of billionaires N/A N/A List of Iranian people by net worth Iran has an estimated 3 million “high net worth individuals“,[63] 32,000 individuals with a net worth of $3 million,[64] 1,300 multimillionaires with net assets of $10 million or more and four billionaires (living in Iran).[65] See also: Social class in Iran and List of high net worth Iranians abroad. 2016
World Giving Index 86 World Charities Aid Foundation Iran ranked 86th charitable nation worldwide with 35% of population having given money to charities, 38% of population having helped a stranger and only 12% having volunteered time. More info: World’s most charitable nations. 2010
Intensity of natural background radiation 1 World Natural background radiation at Ramsar Highest natural radioactivity level in the world. Annual dose of 260 mSv. More info: Acute radiation syndrome and Ionizing radiation. 2010
% of water area 102 139 List of countries by percentage of water area 12,000 km2 of sovereign water area or ~0.73% of total sovereign area 2010
Length of coastline 50 196 List of countries by length of coastline 2,440 km of total coastline length, excluding 740 km of coastline with the Caspian Sea, which is landlocked. 2010
Land Area 18 World List of countries and outlying territories by land area 1,636,000 km2 of land area 2010
World’s largest islands 272 World List of islands by area Qeshm with an area of 1,336 km2 is the world’s 272nd largest island (Greenland is the largest). More info: List of islands by highest point. 2010
World’s highest points by country 22 World List of countries by highest point Damavand with a height of 5,610 m (18,406 ft). Damavand is also one of the Volcanic Seven Summits. More info: List of mountains in Iran and Extreme points of Earth. 2010
World’s lowest points 17 World List of countries by lowest point Caspian Sea with a depth of 28 m below sea level is the world’s 17th deepest natural point. 2010
World’s largest deserts 23 World List of deserts by area Dasht-e Kavir is the 23rd and Dasht-e Lut is the 25th largest desert in the world. 2010
Most livable green countries 83 141 Reader’s Digest Composite measure of HDI and ESI 2008
Tea consumption per capita 5 World World Market Research[66] Annual per capita tea consumption of 1.2 kg 2004
Coffee consumption per capita 132 World World Resources Institute Annual per capita coffee consumption of 0.1 kg 2006
Wheat consumption per capita 7 World US government Yearly consumption of ~195 kg per person 2004
Southernmost point by country 127 World List of countries by southernmost point South east of Sistan va Baluchestan at 25°03’35″N 2010
Northernmost point by country 60 World List of countries by northernmost point West Azarbaijan region at 39°46’38″N 2010
Easternmost point by country 44 World List of countries by easternmost point Sistan va Baluchestan region at 63°18’03″E 2010
Westernmost point by country 146 World List of countries by westernmost point West Azarbaijan region at 44°02’50″E 2010
Hottest Places on Planet Earth 1 World NASA Gandom-Beriyan in Dasht-e Lut is the world’s hottest place with a recorded temperature of 70.7 °C (159 °F).[67][68][69] More info: Iran Meteorological OrganizationList of weather records (states a record of 87 °C (188 °F) in Abadan, Iran in June 1967), and Climate records. 2005
Least expensive capital cities 1 World CNN Tehran is the world’s least expensive capital city based on the cost-of-living index and is overall the second cheapest city after Karachi in the world.[70][71] Cost of living comparison between two cities 2007
World’s tallest towers 5 World List of tallest buildings and structures in the world Milad Tower is the world’s fifth tallest tower and 14th tallest freestanding structure. More info: List of tallest structures in Iranand List of tallest freestanding structures in the world. 2010
Largest oil gushers in history 1 World Oil gusher Qum wildcat oil gusher blew on August 26, 1956, and had an uncontrollable gusher of 125,000 barrels per day (19,900 m3/d) for three months before it was contained. 2010
World’s oldest trees 3 World Earth Watchers Center Sarv-e-Abarkooh, at over 4,000 years of age, is the world’s third oldest tree. 2010
World’s largest sports stadiums 11 World List of stadiums by capacity Azadi Stadium with a seating capacity of 100,000 people is the world’s 11th largest sports stadium as well as being the world’s fourth largest football stadium and world’s 44th largest sporting venue. 2010

Globalization[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Global Competitiveness Report 69 137 World Economic Forum Report measures global economic competitiveness[72] 2017
Globalization Index 162 181 KOF Globalization Index[73] Survey was done indirectly &/or by estimation 2010
Economic complexity index 65 World M.I.T (Visualization Atlas) The Economic Complexity ranking of Iran has increased by 1 places over the past 50 years from 66th in 1964 to 65th in 2014.[74] 2014

Health[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Suicide Rate 164 183 WHO Total suicide rate = 3.6/100,000 people 2015
Tobacco Consumption per capita 71 182 WHO 835.51 Cigarettes smoked per adult per year. 2014
Alcohol consumption per capita 168 World WHO Per capita alcohol consumption of 1.00 liters per year; More info: Alcohol and cancer & Alcoholic liver disease 2010
% of population with access to essential drugs 54 163 World Health Organization Categorized in medium access level of 80%; Number of factories producing medicine: 122[13] 2000
Female % of HIV positive population 15+ years 107 112 World Bank 16.67% of over-15 years old HIV+ population is female 2005
Incidence of tuberculosis per 100,000 people 144 200 World Bank 23.48 per 100,000 People; 100% of all patients are under proper medical treatment as per WHO guidelines[75] 2005
Physicians per 1000 people 138 202 World Bank 0.45 physicians/1000 people; Alternative WHO 2005 indicators: Total Physicians=61,870, Pharmaceutical personnel density=0.2/1000 People, Nursing and midwifery personnel density=1.6/1000 People, Dentistry personnel density=0.2/1000 People[76] 2004
Prevalence of opiate addiction 1 132 United Nations Prevalence rate of 2.8% of population; Almost all opiates smuggled into Iran from Afghanistan; Initiation age for most Iranian addicts is their 20s;[77] More info: Rankings of most harmful drugs 1999
Annual cannabis use by country 31 67 United Nations Annual prevalence rate of 4.2% of population 1999
HIV/AIDS prevalence rate 153 171 CIA World Factbook HIV/AIDS Prevalence Rate of 0.1% of Population; Recent WHO report puts the number of HIV+ people at 110,000 people or ~0.16% of population in 2007 & accelerating;[78][79] In past the primary mode of transmission was by syringe sharing among drug addicts but it is now being replaced by high risk sexual contacts;[80] Iran in 2003 had over 700,000 cases of sexually transmitted infections[81] 2001
Deaths due to HIV/AIDS 47 153 CIA World Factbook 4,300 people die annually because of AIDS/HIV infection; Recent WHO report puts the number of deaths at 6,000 in 2007[78] WHO report puts the coverage of antiretroviral therapy at 6%[78] 2007
Prevalence of HIV among population aged 15-49 years 104 148 World Bank Listed from highest rate to lowest; Iran: 0.15% of 15- to 49-year-olds are HIV+; Recent WHO report puts the % of HIV+ 15- to 49-year-olds at 0.3% in 2007[78] 2005
Access to Sanitation 22 129 CIA World Factbook 99% of population have access to proper sanitation 2003
% of Population undernourished 76 76 United Nations Listed from highest malnourishment rates to lowest; Iran: less than 5% of population is malnourished; More info: Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Iran & Nutrition Landscape Information System for Iran & United Nations map of the world showing % of national population suffering from undernourishment 2009
Prevalence of contraceptive use among women 25 176 World Bank 74% of women aged 15–49 use contraceptives; alternately ranked by UN at 12th/89 with 73% prevalence; Most widely used method is “contraceptive pill”;[82] More info: Contraceptive security 2000
Hospital beds/1000 people 133 191 World Bank Hospital beds/1000 population: 1.6/1000; 758 hospitals, 225,000 hospital beds, 438 emergency centers[13] 2001
Underweight children rate 63 95 United Nations Ranking is from highest rate to lowest; Iran: ~2% of children are underweight 2005
Dietary caloric intake 40 World FAO Iranians on average consume 3040 kcal/person/day; More info: Nutrition 2007
Malaria cases per 100,000 of population 72 94 United Nations/Complete report for Iran Ranking is from highest rate to lowest; Malaria cases in Iran: 27/100,000 of population 2001
World ranking of overall national health systems 93 190 WHO Ranked from best overall health care systems to worst; More info: Health literacy 2000
World ranking of national health system performance & attainment 58 191 WHO Ranking is based on composites of overall health care system, health level & distribution, responsiveness level & distribution, fairness in financial contribution, overall health goals attainment and per capita health expenditure 1997
Total health expenditure per capita 69 World WHO US $678 spent on health per person; Total health expenditure is 6.8% of GDP (PPP) 2006
% of under-5 year old children with ARI taken to health provider 3 80 United Nations 93% of children with Acute Respiratory Infection taken to health provider 2002
% of total births attended by skilled health staff 35 158 Save the Children 97% of all births attended by skilled health staff; Ranked among 43 developed & 115 developing countries, totaling 158 2009
Expenditure on health as % of GDP 75 188 World Bank 6.6% of GDP is spent on health 2004
% of babies exclusively breastfed for 6 months 30 125 United Nations 44% of babies exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life; More info: Facts on Breastfeeding 1995–2002
% of households consuming iodized salt 15 112 United Nations 94% of households consume iodized salt 1997–2002
Out of pocket health expenditure as % of private expenditure on health 64 187 World Bank 94.8% of private health expenditure is out of pocket; More info: Health care system and Publicly funded health care 2004
Prepaid plans as % of private health expenditure 75 187 WHO Prepaid plans constitute 2.9% of private health funding; More info: Universal health care 2002
Government expenditure on health per capita 84 185 WHO Government spends $206 per person/Year 2002
Total expenditure on health per capita 69 185 WHO Total health expenditure by government & private sectors: $432 Per capita/Year 2002
Total population suffering from undernourishment 92 103 Countries by undernourishment rate Listed from highest rate to lowest; Iran: 4% of population is undernourished[83] 2006
Probability of not reaching 40 years of age 73 111 United Nations Listed from highest probability to lowest; Iran: 9.3% 2001
Probability of reaching 65 years of age (males) 62 159 United Nations Listed from highest probability to lowest; Iran: 68.9% 2000
Probability of reaching 65 years of age (females) 91 159 United Nations Listed from highest probability to lowest; Iran: 74.3% 2000
Total number of kidney transplants/Year 20 47 Worldwide Transplant Center Directory 228 kidneys transplanted in 2002; Iran ranked 4th worldwide in 2007 with more than 2000 transplants performed annually[84][85] 2002
Kidney transplants per capita 35 47 Worldwide Transplant Center Directory 3.35205 kidney transplants per 1 million people/Year 2002
Countries by total disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate 110 194 WHO Iran has total DALY rate of 175.2 years per 1000 of population; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest; More information: The burden of disease & injury in Iran & Global burden of disease & World Health Statistics 2009 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Tuberculosis 118 194 WHO DALY rate of 0.78 year/1000 people for TB; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) excluding HIV/AIDS 100 194 WHO DALY rate of 1.1 years/1000 people for STDs excluding HIV/AIDS; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for HIV/AIDS 102 194 WHO DALY rate of 0.83 year/1000 people for AIDS/HIV; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Diarrhea 89 194 WHO DALY rate of 4.4 years/1000 people for diarrhea; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Meningitis 122 194 WHO DALY rate of 0.50 year/1000 people for meningitis; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Hepatitis B 88 194 WHO DALY rate of 0.14 year/1000 people for hepatitis B; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest; Higher DALYs in risk groups e.g. truck drivers[86] 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Hepatitis C 89 194 WHO DALY rate of 0.07 year/1000 people for hepatitis C; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Respiratory Infections 105 194 WHO DALY rate of 4.62 years/1000 people for Respiratory infections; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Maternal conditions 76 194 WHO DALY rate of 5.49 years/1000 people for Maternal conditions; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Perinatal conditions 77 194 WHO DALY rate of 15.97 years/1000 people for Perinatal conditions; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Malnutrition 93 194 WHO DALY rate of 4.24 years/1000 people for Malnutrition; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest; More info: Obesity in Iran & Obesity Scale Country Comparison & Facts on Malnutrition & Map of Obesity 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Cancers 148 194 WHO DALY rate of 7.63 years/1000 people for Cancers; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest; More info: Cancer Country Profile 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Diabetes 121 194 WHO DALY rate of 2.77 years/1000 people for Diabetes; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Neuro-Psychiatric conditions 46 194 WHO DALY rate of 34.41 years/1000 people for Neuro-Psychiatric diseases: Neurological+Psychiatric conditions; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for diseases of sensory organs 49 194 WHO DALY rate of 12.84 years/1000 people for diseases of Sensory organs: Eye diseases+Ear diseases ; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Cardiovascular diseases 80 194 WHO DALY rate of 21.63 years/1000 people for Cardiovascular diseases; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest; More info: Physical Inactivity Prevalence in Iran & Raised Cholesterol Prevalence in Iran & Raised Blood Pressure Prevalence in Iran 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Respiratory diseases 134 194 WHO DALY rate of 6.18 years/1000 people for Respiratory diseases; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Digestive diseases 169 194 WHO DALY rate of 3.44 years/1000 people for Digestive diseases; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Genito-Urinary diseases 123 194 WHO DALY rate of 1.86 years/1000 people for Genito-urinary diseases; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest; More info: Prevalence of circumcision 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Skin diseases 145 194 WHO DALY rate of 0.42 years/1000 people for Skin diseases; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Musculoskeletal diseases 130 194 WHO DALY rate of 3.83 years/1000 people for Musculoskeletal diseases; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest; Example: Burden of osteoporosis in Iran 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Congenital Anomalies 82 194 WHO DALY rate of 4.41 years/1000 people for Congenital anomalies; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Oral diseases 37 194 WHO DALY rate of 2.13 years/1000 people for Oral diseases; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for All Accidents 29 194 WHO DALY rate of 29.7 years/1000 people for Un-intentional Injuries; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest; More info: Economic compensation of accidental injuries in Iran 2004
Countries by disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate for Intentional Injuries 138 194 WHO DALY rate of 3.2 years/1000 people for Intentional Injuries; Ranked from highest DALY rate to lowest; Economic loss of 0.49% of GDP/Year due to violence & intentional injuries[87] 2004
Total healthy life expectancy at birth 119 192 WHO Total Healthy life expectancy (HALE) of 57.6 years on average at birth; Ranked from highest healthy life expectancy to lowest 2004
Male healthy life expectancy at birth 117 192 WHO Male Healthy life expectancy (HALE) of 56.1 years on average at birth; Ranked from highest healthy life expectancy to lowest 2004
Male healthy life expectancy at 60 years of age 132 192 WHO Male Healthy life expectancy (HALE) of 10.4 years on average at 60 years of age; Ranked from highest healthy life expectancy to lowest 2004
Female healthy life expectancy at birth 118 192 WHO Female Healthy life expectancy (HALE) of 59.1 years on average at birth; Ranked from highest healthy life expectancy to lowest 2004
Female healthy life expectancy at 60 years of age 121 192 WHO Female Healthy life expectancy (HALE) of 11.9 years on average at 60 years of age; Ranked from highest healthy life expectancy to lowest 2004
Expectation of lost healthy years at birth (Male) 2 192 WHO Expectation of lost healthy years (Male) of 10.4 years on average at birth; Ranked from highest loss of healthy years to lowest; Iran is 2nd after Yemen in the world & followed by Iraq 2004
Expectation of lost healthy years at birth (Female) 1 192 WHO Expectation of lost healthy years (Female) of 12.5 years on average at birth; Ranked from highest loss of healthy years to lowest; Iran has the highest loss of healthy years for females in the world 2004
Urban sulfur dioxide pollution 1 141 World Health Organization City SO2 concentration: 209 micrograms/m3; More info: WHO map of deaths due to air pollution 1995
Country Rank by Top World Hospitals 21 World Webometrics Iran has one hospital among world’s top 200 hospitals, 2 in top 500 and 4 in top 1000 2009

History and culture[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Oldest countries on earth 1 World List of countries by statehood Iran with its inception in 3200 BC, is the oldest country in the world. More info: History of Iran and List of sovereign states by formation date 2010
World Tourism rankings 5 Middle East United Nations 5.2 million foreign tourists visited Iran in 2015. 2015
World heritage sites 11 239 United Nations 21 World Heritage Sites; More info: List of the world heritage sites 2010
Longest defensive wall 2 World List of walls Great Wall of Gorgan is the second longest defensive wall in existence after the Great Wall of China 2010
World’s oldest artificial water reservoirs 1 World Qanat The world’s oldest water reservoir is in Gonabad, is more than 2700 years old & is still in use; It is also the world’s largest qanat; More info: Iranian architecture 2010
Sovereign jewels collection 1 World Iranian Crown Jewels World’s largest collection of jewels 2010
Number of former national capitals 1 World List of former national capitals Highest number of national capital relocations; Iran has had 31 former capitals before Tehran[88] 2010
Largest producers of handmade carpets 1 World Carpet Iran produces 3/4 of the world’s handmade carpets; Iran has 30% share of the world’s carpet export market;[89][90][91][92] Iran has also produced the world’s largest handmade carpet, measuring 60,546 square feet.[93][94][95] More info: Carpet Museum of Iran 2010
Total cinema attendance 19 78 United Nations 26,000,000 attendances 2003
Number of cinema seats 15 60 United Nations 173,000 Cinema seats in total 1995

Industry and mining[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
World’s Largest Petroleum Companies 2 World Energy Intelligence[96] The Iranian government-owned corporation of NIOC after Aramco is the world’s second-largest petroleum company. 2008
World’s largest mining companies 23 World World Bank Iran’s national mining corporation (IMIDRO) is the world’s 23rd largest mining company with 0.6% of the world’s total mining production 2007
World’s Largest State Owned Corporations 7 World Financial Times National Iranian Oil Company with a market capitalization of US $220 billion in 2006 ranked 7th worldwide. 2006
Industrial production growth rate 28 161 CIA World Factbook Industrial growth rate of 4.0% annually; Alternatively put at 7.4% by Iranian government[13] 2009
List of countries by motor vehicle production 12 52 International Organization of Automobile Manufacturers 1,395,421 automobiles manufactured in 2009; During period 2000-2010 Iran after China had the highest growth in automobile manufacturing; Over 1.6 million vehicles & 1 million motorcycles were produced in 2010;[97] More info: Automotive industry in Iran 2009
High Technology Exports per capita 114 167 World Bank High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in nuclear, aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments and electrical machinery; Iran: ~1,461 $ per 1,000 people/Year 2004
Petrochemical production 45 World Chemical & Engineering News Iran is the world’s 45th largest chemical producer with an annual production sale value of 7.8 billion dollars;[98][99][100][101] NIOC of Iran with ~1.67 million barrels per day (266,000 m3/d) ranks 11th globally in terms of total oil refining capacity;[102] NIPC of Iran plans to become world’s second largest producer of chemicals by 2015,[103] Iran also plans to become world’s second largest exporter of Polymers[104] 2008
Non-energy use of bitumen asphalt 6 130 United Nations Annual use of 3,496,000 tonnes of asphalt 2005
Trademarks Per capita 33 142 World Bank Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify/protect goods or services as those produced by an enterprise or individual; Iran: ~153 per 1 million people. More info: Intellectual property in Iran 2001
Non-energy use of lubricants 9 147 United Nations 770,000 tonnes of lubricants used annually 2005
Usage of naphtha by industry 13 45 United Nations Annual use of 2,492,000 tonnes of naphtha 2005
Industrial electricity consumption per capita 73 171 United Nations ~692 kWh per capita/Year 2005
Industrial use of residual oil 5 142 United Nations 6,869,000 tonnes used/Year of residual oil 2005
Quantity of value added manufacturing 29 155 World Bank 21.22 billion constant year 2000 US$/Year of value added manufacturing 2005
Bagasse consumption by industry 27 80 United Nations 1,206,000 tonnes of Bagasse consumed by industry annually 2005
Diesel consumption by industry 15 128 United Nations 1,798,000 tonnes/Year 2005
Total lubricant production 10 86 United Nations Annual lubricants production of 955,000 tonnes 2005
Natural gas consumption by chemical industry 9 66 United Nations Annual usage of 138,966 Tera-joules 2005
Blast furnace gas consumption by industry 19 47 United Nations 10,102 Tera-joules of blast furnace gas consumed/Year 2005
Coal consumption by industry 42 89 United Nations 330,000 tonnes/Year 2005
Steel production by country 16 World World Steel Association/US Geological Survey More than 10.9 million tonnes/Year in 2009; Iran’s production capacity reached 20 million tonnes/year in 2010;[105][106] Iran plans to increase its steel production to more than 35 million tonnes/year by 2015[107][108] 2009
Copper mine production 12 World British Geological Survey Annual production of 249,100 tonnes 2006
Aluminium production 17 World List of countries by aluminium production Annual production of 457,000 tonnes 2006
Cement production 5[109] World List of countries by cement production / Pie Chart of World’s Production 2009: Annual production of 45 million tonnes, or ~1.6% of the world’s total output & total production capacity of 55 million tonnes annually;[110] Iran ranks 10th globally in terms of cement export[111] See also: Construction in Iran 2010
Iron production 8 World US Geological Survey Annual production of 33 million tonnes 2009
Gypsum production 2 World British Geological Survey Iran is the world’s 2nd largest producer after China 2006
Iron ore production 8 World US Geological Survey Annual production of 33 million tonnes[112] 2009
Production of natural iron oxide 9 World US Geological Survey Annual production of 2,600 tonnes 2006
Production of ammonia 21 World US Geological Survey Annual ammonia production of 1.02 million tonnes 2006
Reserves of Zinc 1 World British Geological Survey Iran has the world’s largest zinc reserves, in addition to 2nd largest reserves of copper, ninth largest reserves of iron and eleventh largest reserves of lead[113][114][115] 2010
Industrial imports by country 28 World World Trade Organization Iran ranks 28th globally in terms of importation of industrial machinery 2004

Military and defense[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Composite Index of National Capability (CINC) 15 World Correlates of War[116] CINC is a statistical measure of national hard power as opposed to soft power representing demographic, economic and military strength of a nation; Index of Iran=0.013450, Index of World’s total capability=1. 2007
Military expenditures 24 154 SIPRI Total annual military budget of 9.17 billion dollars.[117] In 2010 the Iranian government put the total security and defence budget including that of army, IRGC, police, military R&D, intelligence agencies, etc. at $17.14 billion.[118][119] 2009
List of countries by military expenditure per capita 62 World CIA World Factbook Iranian military per capita expenditure of US $64.77 2008
Military expenditure as % of GDP 37 154 SIPRI Iran spends 2.7% of its GDP on its military defense; More info: Comparison of world’s expenditure on military, health and education 2008
Fire Power Rankings of Countries 12 World Global Fire Power[120] Ranking based on conventional military firepower 2010
Total number of troops 7 World CSIS Total troops numbering 3,833,000; More info: Rank insignia of the Iranian military 2009
Male manpower fit for military service 15 234 CIA World Factbook 17.67 million males fit for military service 2009
Male manpower reaching military service age annually 15 234 CIA World Factbook 700,213 males reach military service age annually 2009
List of countries by size of police forces 30 60 CSIS Police force size of 40,000 personnel 2006
Private gun & firearms ownership 79 178 Small Arms Survey[121] 7.3 guns owned privately per 100 civilian residents; There were 3.5 million small arms owned by Iranian residents 2007
Arms exports/Year 37 40 SIPRI Iran’s arms exports in 2005: US $1 million; Iran is prohibited from exporting its locally manufactured military equipment by United Nations Security Council; Iran is currently facing the longest sanction in modern history;[122][123] More info: Sanctions against Iran & Iran and Libya Sanctions Act & CASMII; Iran’s weapons exports were US $2 million in 2008[124] 2005
Arms imports/Year 17 169 World Bank Iran’s arms imports in 2005: US $403 million; More info: Iran’s weapons’s imports in 2008 were US $91 million,[124] Iran is banned from importing weapons by United Nations Security Council sanctions of 2010;[125] Iranian arms imports comparison by CSIS 2005
Arms imports per capita/Year 60 169 World Bank Approximately 6 dollars per Person per Year 2005
Deadliest wars and armed conflicts 18 World List of wars and disasters by death toll The defensive war which Iran fought when Iraq tried to invade Iran is the 18th most bloody war in history of mankind; Iran has not been engaged in an offensive war since the Battle of Karnal in 1739. 2010
List of countries by number of UN peacekeepers 107 World United Nations Iran had two military personnel working as UN peacekeepers at conflict zones around the world 2010
Most heavily mined countries 2 World WHO 16 million mines[126] 2003

Politics[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Global Peace Index 104 149 Economist Intelligence Unit More info: GPI map for 2010 2010
Political orientation as % of far left proponents in population 9 61 World Values Survey 7.3% of population hold far left political views; More info: Map of Iran’s political blogosphere 2005
Political orientation as % of far right proponents in population 40 61 World Values Survey 3.9% of population hold far right political views 2005
Corruption Perceptions Index 131 176 Transparency International See also: Crime in Iran 2016
Irregular payments & bribes 69 World World Economic Forum Extent of bribery in business environment 2010
Worldwide press freedom index 166 169 Reporters Without Borders More info: Countries ranked by journalists killed 2007
Democracy Index 145 167 Economist Intelligence Unit 2008
% Female ministers as of total ministers 23 125 Inter-Parliamentary Union Females: 27.1% of government at ministerial level 2000
List of countries by Failed States Index 38 177 Fund For Peace More info: Foreign relations of Iran 2009
Presidential election voting age population 10 91 Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 32,585,700 eligible voters for presidential elections; More info: Politics of Iran 2003
Freedom of the Press (report) 184 196 Freedom House More info: Media of Iran 2009
Limited government index 73 World Freedom Meta-Index Index measuring the relative size of the government in people’s lives 2011
Public trust of politicians 39 World World Economic Forum Degree of public trust in ethical standards of their politicians. 2010

Religion[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Muslim population 7 67 Demographics of Islam 7th largest Muslim population in the world; More info: List of countries by Muslim population 2005
Muslims as % of population 6 168 International Religious Freedom Report 98% of population is Muslim; More info: Religions by country 2004
Shia’s as % of total Muslim population 1 67 Demographics of Islam 89% of Muslim population of the country is Shia 2005
Number of Shia Muslims by Country 1 67 Demographics of Islam 61,924,500 Shia Muslims; Second is India with an estimated population of 40 to 55 million as per 2001 Census followed by Pakistan with an estimated Shia population of 30 to 45 million. More info: Demographics of Shia Islam 2005
Sunni’s as % of total Muslim population 67 67 Demographics of Islam 9% of Muslim population of the country is Sunni 2005
Bahá’í population by country 2 247 Bahá’í Faith by country Population of 150,000-500,000 2004
Protestants population 98 167 Protestantism by country Population of 204,054 2004
Population of Roman Catholics 149 170 Roman Catholicism by country Population of 13,603 2004
Zoroastrian population by country 2 World Zoroastrianism Population of 24,000-30,000 2005
Jewish population of countries 24 89 World Jewish Congress ~25,000-40,000 Jews live in Iran according to various estimates[127][128][129] 1998

Science and technology[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Global Innovation Index 120 143 World Intellectual Property Organization[130] Index measures enabling environment for innovation; More info: Ingenuity & Creativity 2014
Science & Technology Growth Rate 1 World Science-Metrix Report / Science-Metrix country graph comparison / Government of United Kingdom Highest science & technology growth rate in the world, 1000% increase in 9 years (1995–2004); Iran has increased its academic publishing output from 0.0003% of world’s total output in 1970 to 0.29% by 2004 (That is ~100000% growth in 33 years),[131] by 2008 Iran’s share had reached 1.02% of the world’s total output (~340000% growth in 37 years);[132] Iran’s 2009 growth rate in science & technology was highest globally being 11 times faster than the world’s average rate; Iran has been doubling its scientific output every 3 years;[133] In 2009 ranked at 22nd by total scientific output; 19th in mathematics output, 17th in computer science applications output, 15th in nuclear technology output; 28th in physics output; 16th in aerospace technology output; 17th in medicine output, 13th in chemistry output & 15th in nanotechnologyoutput[134][135] More info: Science in newly industrialized countriesIranian scientific publications online digital archive 2010
Total Research & Development spending in PPP US dollars 27 World United Nations Iran spends 6.2 billion US dollars in PPP terms equaling to ~0.7% of its GDP (PPP), Iran has 500 scientists & tech personnel working in R&D sector for every one million of population;[136] More info: Iran National Science Foundation & Science of science policy & Science policy & Technology Life Cycle & Iranian cities among world’s science cities 2010
Research and development spending 43 69 World Bank About 0.5% of GDP was spent on research and development in year 2000; Iran’s spending on R&D is to reach 3% of GDP by 2015;[137]Government funds 75% of all Research in Iran[138] 2000
Research and development spending per capita 58 69 World Bank 0.007351% of national GDP per 1 million people; More info: Emerging technologies 2000
Technology Achievement Index 45 68 United Nations Technology Achievement Index measures creation of technology, diffusion of recent innovations, diffusion of old innovations & human skills; Iran’s score: 0.26 out of 1; Iran ranks 1st in the region, 4th in Asia and 12th in the world in producing biological drugs.[139] More info: Human capital 2001
Patents granted per capita 56 60 World Intellectual Property Organization 0.014702 Patents per one million people; More info: Intellectual property in Iran & Technological determinism 1998
Patents 90 World World Intellectual Property Organization More info: Patent & Business incubator 2013
Industrial Design 100 World World Intellectual Property Organization More info: Invention & Seed accelerator 2013
Trademarks 82 World World Intellectual Property Organization More info: Science park & Trademark 2013
Highest budget national space agencies 9 World List of space agencies ISA with $500 million/Year has the 9th highest budget of a national space organization in the world 2010
First orbital launches by country 9 World Timeline of first orbital launches by country Iran is the 9th country to reach space; More info: Outer Space Treaty 2010
Biological space launch capability 6 World Animals in space Iran is the sixth country to have launched animals into space & recover them alive 2010
Total human spaceflight time by country 21 World List of spaceflight records Iran stands 21st in terms of total time spent by its nationals in space; Only one Iranian (Anousheh Ansari) has spent ~11 person-days in space as a space tourist; More info: Timeline of space travel by nationality 2007

Society[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Quality-of-life index 58 80 Economist Intelligence Unit Survey was done indirectly &/or by estimations 2013
Legatum Prosperity Index 92 110 Legatum Institute Survey was done indirectly &/or by estimations 2010
Satisfaction with Life Index 96 178 Measure of subjective life satisfaction Measurement of wealth, health and access to basic education; Score of Iran=200; More info: Sociocultural evolution & Happiness economics 2006
Incarceration Rate 57 217 International Centre for Prison Studies 222 Prisoners per 100,000 People 2009
% female prisoners as of total prison population 81 134 International Centre for Prison Studies Females comprise 3.5% of prison population 2003
% pre-trial detainees as of total prison population 89 143 International Centre for Prison Studies Pre-trial detainees comprise 24.8% of total prison population 2003
Homicide Rate 66 144 United Nations Homicide rate of 2.93 intentional murders per 100,000 people 2009
Global Gender Gap Report 123 134 World Economic Forum Survey was done indirectly &/or by estimation 2010
Mother’s Index Rank 49 158 Save the ChildrenState of the World’s Mothers report2009 The index is a calculated composite measure of indicators for health, education, equality, economic freedom, nutrition & political status related to the well being of mothers; Ranking is among 43 developed & 115 developing countries, totaling 158 2009
Women’s Index Rank 45 158 Save the ChildrenState of the World’s Mothers report2009 The index is a calculated composite measure of indicators for health, education, equality, economic freedom, nutrition & political status related to the well being of women; Ranking is among 43 developed & 115 developing countries, totaling 158 2009
Children’s Index Rank 45 158 Save the ChildrenState of the World’s Mothers report2009 The index is a calculated composite measure of indicators for health, education, equality, economic freedom, nutrition & political status related to the well being of children; Ranking is among 43 developed & 115 developing countries, totaling 158 2009
Child Development Index 68 143 Save the ChildrenChild Development Index 2008 Index measures education, health & nutrition of children 2000–2006
Sen Social Welfare Function 49 World List of countries by Sen social welfare function Iran is 49th in the world in terms of best social welfare function 2009
Gender-related Development Index 76 155 United Nations / Complete Report Index shows the inequalities between men and women in these areas: long and healthy life, knowledge & a decent standard of living 2009
Gender Empowerment Measure 103 109 United Nations / Complete Report Index measures inequalities between men’s and women’s opportunities in a country 2009
Sustainable Society Index 97 World SSI rankings for 2010 Sustainable Society Index measures three dimensions of human, environmental and economical well being; More info: SSI 2010 complete report 2010
World’s best countries 79 World Newsweek Ranking of the world’s best countries based on categories of education, health, quality of life, economic dynamism and political environment 2010
Drug Freedom Index 64 World Freedom Meta-Index Index measuring access to recreational drugs; In Iran: Illegal drug trade can have punishments ranging from fines to lashings, imprisonment & death penalty; Personal drug consumption is generally overlooked by law[140] 2011
Judicial independence 65 World World Economic Forum The extent of judicial independence 2010

Transport[edit]

Rankings
Name Rank Out of Source Notes Year
Merchant marine capacity 31 148 CIA World Factbook Iran owns a total of 188 ships of which 73 are Iranian flagged ships & 115 ships sail with foreign flags plus one additional foreign (UAE) owned ship sailing with Iranian flag; More info: Iran Shipping Lines; Iran also has a fleet of 46 marine tankers consisting of 28 VLCC, 9 Suezmax, 5 Aframax, 3 chemical vessels and a single LPG tanker; The total number of tankers is to be increased to 74 by 2013 and to more than 80 by 2015.;[141] National Iranian Tanker Company was the world’s fifth largest tanker operator with 43 ships in 2010 & is expected to become the world’s third largest tanker company with 74 ships in 2013[142] 2008
Rail transport network size 21 151 International Union of Railways Total rail network length of 11,106 km; More info: Iran railways 2008
Road network size 29 191 CIA World Factbook Total road network length of 172,927 km 2006
Total length of pipelines 8 120 CIA World Factbook Total pipeline length of 36,509 km; condensate 7 km; condensate/gas 397 km; gas 19,161 km; liquid petroleum gas 570 km; oil 8,438 km; refined products 7,936 km; Iran ranks 4th worldwide by natural gas pipeline length[143] having 32,000 km of gas pipelines in 2010[144] Iran plans to have 70,000 km of natural gas pipelines by 2025[145] 2007
Length of Liquid Petroleum Gas Pipelines 6 17 CIA World Factbook 570 km of LPG pipelines 2006
Length of Oil Pipelines 6 97 CIA World Factbook 8,256 km of oil pipelines 2006
Rapid transit systems 20 53 Total rapid transit systems statistics by country 120.1 km of rapid transit network length with 64 stations 2002
Vehicles per capita 56 144 List of countries by vehicles per capita 175 automobiles per 1000 people in addition to 110 motorbikes per 1000 people; More info: Automotive industry in Iran & List of international vehicle registration codes 2010
Waterways length 70 109 CIA World Factbook 850 km of waterways 2008
Air transport, freight 59 176 World Bank 98.22 million tonnes-km/Year airlifted 2005
Air transport, passengers carried 26 177 World Bank 12,708,350 Air passengers/Year; More info: Countries with the most fatal civil airliner accidents 2005
Number of airports 26 251 CIA World Factbook 331 Operational airports 2007
Number of heliports 14 World CIA World Factbook 19 Operational heliports 2010
Rail usage by Annual Passenger-Km Per Capita 26 32 International Union of Railways Ranked among countries with more than 5 billion passenger-km/year; Iran: 180 passenger-km Per Capita/Year 2006
Rail usage by annual Billion Tonne-Kilometers/Year 20 32 International Union of Railways Ranked among countries with more than 10 billion tonne-kilometers; Iran: 20.5 billion tonne-kilometers 2006
Metro systems by annual passenger rides 18 145 Tehran Metro[146] 622.2 million passenger rides in 2010;[147] Tehran Metro is the largest and busiest metro system in South Asia and the second largest and busiest in middle east 2010
Total number of Airports with paved runways 20 227 CIA World Factbook 129 Operational airports with paved runways 2007
Number of airports with paved runways, length: over 3047 meters 4 161 CIA World Factbook 40 Airport runways with length of over 3047 m 2007
Gasoline (Petrol) consumption by transport sector 10 194 United Nations Annual gasoline (petrol) consumption of 17,854,000 tonnes by vehicles 2005
Jet fuel bunker capacity 21 158 United Nations National jet fuel bunker capacity of 850,000 tonnes 2005
Traffic related deaths per capita 11 World List of countries by traffic-related death rateSmeed’s law / Epidemiology of motor vehicle collisions / Traffic injuries in Iran 35.8 people per 100,000 of population die in traffic accidents yearly; Total annual deaths of 22,918 and 685,000 injured according to WHO report 2009;[148][149] Leading cause of premature death & disability in Iran; 1.3 million potential life-years lost annually; Male to female death ratio of 5 to 1; Most common causes: not wearing seat belt, taligating, over-speeding, wrong overtakes, not wearing helmets, rapid changing of lanes, not signalling; Property damages worth more than $18 billion per year due to vehicle collisions;[150][151][152] More info: Car accidents in IranGraph comparisons of Iran & Rapid motorization & traffic injuries in Iran & Statistical comparison of travel safety 2000
Number of Natural Gas Vehicles by Country 1 World Worldwide NGV Statistics[153] Iran has the world’s largest fleet of vehicles running on CNG at 2.86 million NGVs and 1,800 fueling stations by the end of 2011;[154]Iran is also the world’s fastest growing NGV market[155][156][157] By end of 2011, Iran’s refueling stations had a total of 10,656 gas dispensers with installed cumulative capacity of 1.93 million cubic meters per hour & supplying more than 17 million cubic meters of gas per day to NGV’s; The number of fueling stations is to increase to 2,500 by the end of 2012 and to more than 3,000 in 2013[158] 2011

Notes[edit]

§.^ The surveys producing these world rankings have been done in different times and might not be current. Please refer to the specific articles or sources for updated information, where available. Furthermore in most surveys only the important countries in the respective fields have been surveyed, thus the ranks might not be out of the whole world and all the countries. It should also be noted that the rankings are based on surveys by numerous entities with different benchmarks and standards, thus caution is needed in their interpretation of final results specially in the case of subjective field matters, as some of these rankings maybe based on speculative, biased, subjective or politicized evaluations. Finally, it is always important to consider trend when making comparisons, since single point data may be exceptional in nature (e.g. Iran’s 2008 drought and wheat production).

See also[edit]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Timeline of Yazd

Timeline of Yazd

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of YazdIran.

Prior to 20th century

  • 749 – Abu-Moslem Khorasani in power.[1]
  • 1051 – Kakuyid Faramurz in power.[2]
  • 1070 – Ali ibn Faramurz in power (approximate date).
  • 1119 – Masjed-e ʿAtiq (Friday Mosque) built by ʿAlāʿ-al-Dawla Garšāsp.[3]
  • 1141 – Atabegs of Yazd in power.
  • 1228/1229 – Mahmud Shah in power.[2]
  • 1271/1272 – Ala al-Dawla in power.[2]
  • 1274/1275 – Flood.[2]
  • 14th century CE – Muin al-Din Yazdi writes history of Yazd.[4]
  • 1307/1308 – Duvazdah Imam (tomb) built.[5]
  • 1318 – Muzaffarid Mubariz al-Din Muhammad becomes governor.[3]
  • 1320 – Shah Kamal madrasa built.[5]
  • 1324 – Jame Mosque of Yazd built.[6]
  • 1325
  • 1346/1347 – City walls expanded.[6]
  • 1365 – Tomb of Šams-al-Din Moḥammad built (approximate date).[3]
  • 1368/1369 – Masjed-e Rig (mosque) built.[7]
  • 1385/1386 – Mosque of Ḵᵛāja Ḥāji Abu’l-Maʿāli built.[3]
  • 1395 – Fortifications built.[6]
  • 15th century CE – Historians Ahmad ibn Husain Ali Katib and Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Jafari each write histories of Yazd.[4]
  • 1405/1406 – Iskandar b. Umar Shaykh becomes governor.[2]
  • 1421/1422 – Bazaar built near Mehriz gate.[7]
  • 1456 – Flood.[5]
  • 1457 – Haji-Qanbar Bazaar built.[1]
  • 1720s – Ghalzai Afghans in power.[6]
  • 1742/1743 – Mirza Husayn becomes governor.[2]
  • 1747 – Mohammad Taqi Khan becomes governor (until 1798).[7]

20th century

  • 1903 – Anti-Bahá’í unrest.[2]
  • 1920 – Population: 45,000 (approximate estimate).[8]
  • 1931 – Factory in business.[9]
  • 1935 – Pahlavi Street constructed.[1]
  • 1940 – Yazd Ateshkade (Zoroastrian building) opens.[10]
  • 1976 – City Hall built.[1]
  • 1982 – Population: 193,000 (estimate).[11]
  • 1986 – Population: 234,003.[1]
  • 1991 – Shahid Ghandi Yazd (football club) formed.
  • 1996 – Population: 326,776.[12]

21st century

See also

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Timeline of Tabriz

Timeline of Tabriz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Tabriz, capital of East Azerbaijan Province in Iran.

Prior to 15th century

One of the unearthed thumb in Blue mosque excavation site, 1500 B.C.

  • 714 B.C. – Mentioned in Assyrian King Sargon II‘s epigraph in 714 B.C
  • 2nd to 7th century AD The earliest elements of the present Tabriz are claimed to be built either at the time of the early Sassanids in the 3rd or 4th century AD, or later in the 7th century.[1] The Middle Persian name of the city was T’awrēš.
  • 8th century C.E. – Tabriz Bazaar construction begins.[2]
  • 858 C.E. – A devastating earthquake happened in Tabriz.[3]
  • 1041 – A devastating earthquake happened in Tabriz.[3]
  • 1208 – annexed by the army of Kingdom of Georgia under command of brothers Ivane and Zakaria Mkhargrdzeli.[4]
  • 1275 – Marco Polo traveled through Tabriz on his way to China.[5]
  • 1298 – Sham-i Ghazan built (approximate date).[6]
  • 1299 – City becomes Ilkhanid capital.[7]
  • 1300 – Rab’-e Rashidi (academic center) built.[8]
  • 1305 – Ghazaniyya (tomb) built.[8]
  • 1311 – Masjid-i Alishah built (approximate date).[6]
  • 1314 – Madrasa of Sayyid Hamza built.[6]
  • 1320 – Arg of Tabriz built.[8]
  • 1330 – Dimishqiyya built (approximate date).[6]
  • 1340 – Masjid-i Ustad-Shagird and Alaiyya built.[6]
  • 1356/1357 – City is briefly occupied by the Muzafarrids[9]
  • 1370 – Imarat-i Shaikh Uvais built (approximate date).[6]
  • 1375 – City becomes capital of Kara Koyunlu territory.[citation needed]
  • 1392 – City besieged by Timur.[3]

15th–16th centuries

A 16th-century map of Tabriz, sketched by Matrakçı Nasuh (Ottomanpolymath).

A miniature depicted of 2nd Shah of the Safavid dynasty Tahmasp I in Tabriz.

  • 1406 – Kara Koyunlu in power.
  • 1465 – Blue Mosque and Muzaffariyya built.[6]
  • 1468 – Uzun Hasan in power.[10]
  • 1469 – City becomes part of Ak Koyunlu territory.
  • 1472 – Capital relocates to Tabriz from Amid.[11]
  • 1475 – Masjid-i Hasan Padshah and Maqsudiyya built (approximate date).[6]
  • 1478 – Nasiriyya built.[6]
  • 1483 – Hasht Bihisht palace built.[10]
  • 1500 – Population: 300,000 (approximate).[11] The fifth most populated city in the world.[12]
  • 1501 – Safavid Ismail I in power.[13]
  • 1514
  • 1534 – Ottomans in power.
  • 1535 – Safavids in power.
  • 1548
  • 1555 – Persians in power per Treaty of Amasya.[6]
  • 1571 – Uprising.[14]
  • 1585 – Ottomans in power.[13]

17th–18th centuries

Tauris sketched by Jean Chardin, 1673.

Sketch of Tabriz in 1690.

  • 1603 – Safavids in power.
  • 1610 – Ottomans in power.
  • 1611 – Safavids in power.
  • 1635 – City sacked by Ottoman Murad IV.[6]
  • 1636 – Saheb-ol-Amr Mosque built.[2]
  • 1641 – Earthquake.[10]
  • 1655 – Madrasa Sadiqiyya built.[6]
  • 1673 – Population: 550,000.[11]
  • 1676 – Madrasa Talibiyya built.[6]
  • 1721 – Earthquake kills eighty thousands.[15]
  • 1724 – Ottomans in power.
    • 1724–1725 Ottoman invaders killed about two hundred thousands of city residents.
  • 1730 – Safavids in power.
  • 1736 – City becomes part of Afshar territory.
  • 1747 – City becomes part of Khanate of Tabriz.
  • 1757 – Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar takes city.[16]
  • 1762 – City incorporated into Zand realm.[16]
  • 1775 – Earthquake.[11]
  • 1780 – 28 February: Earthquake kills about two hundred thousands of the city residents.[7]
    • Population: about thirty thousands.
  • 1785 – Qajars in power.
  • 1799 – Qajar prince Abbas Mirza appointed as the governor of the city.

19th century

20th century

1900s–1940s

Teachers of Memorial School of Tabriz, photographed in 1923.

1950s–1990s

21st century

See also

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Timeline of Shiraz

Timeline of Shiraz

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of ShirazIran.

Prior to 14th century

  • c2000 BC – A settlement of the Iranian people is located at or near the current site of the city. Clay tablets referring to this settlements were found in the 1970s.
  • C1000 BC – The growth of the settlements particularly near the rivers flowing in the area leads to development of a regional power structure among the local tribes. The Medes rotary their rise to power
  • C750 BC – Cambosys sets the foundations of the first Persian empire.
  • C650 BC – Cyrus, son of Cambosys, defeats all local, regional, and continental wide kingdoms. He forms the Achamenid empire extending from North Africa, And the Meditranea to India and western China. It encompasses the largest percentage of earths population under one rule. A record that has never been broken to present day.
  • 640–653 CE – Fārs falls to the Arab armies of Umar. Shiraz in 641. Estakhr in 653.
  • 650–869 – Seat of the Arab government of Fārs. Controlled from Baghdad with very limited Persian activity. Other towns in the region decline as Shiraz grows with new immigrants. Turkish tribes are brought to the region to serve as soldiers in the Arab army. Descendents of these tribes form ruling dynasties of the region in the next several centuries.
  • 790 – Shiraz scholar Sibawayh publishes his writings. This is the first formal basis of Arabic Grammar.[1]
  • 9th century – Shirazi wine is praised as the best of the Middle East.
  • 869 – Saffarid dynasty leader Yaqub Leis liberates Shiraz. Baghdad Caliphate rule weakened. Many Arabs and Turks in the city are eliminated but a significant number choose to stay in Shiraz, as they have adopted Persian culture.
  • 894 – Atigh Jame’ Mosque built by Amr-o-Leis Saffari (Yaqub’s brother).[2]
  • 933 – Shiraz is Capital of the Buwayhid dynasty. Becomes cultural center under Emmad-al-dowleh, first Buyid Amir.
  • 937 – Buyids eventually bring down the Caliphate of Baghdad and Shiraz gains international prominence. Literature, science, art and culture are promoted. Religious minorities are treated well. Christaians, Jews and Zoroastrians are among the ministers and consultants of the Buyid Amirs.
  • c950 – Subterranean canal made in the mountains to bring fresh water to the city by Rokn-al-dawleh, Emmad’s brother. The stream (called Abeh Rokni) still runs today, and is immortalized in poetry of Shiraz.
  • c1000 – First wall built around Shiraz due to attacks by Seljuk Turks, (see also Turkmens). The Seljuks were supported by the Damascuss-based remainder of the Caliphate, against the Buyids.
  • c1010 – Over the next 50 years this war, as well as internal feuds among the Buyids destroys much of the city.
  • 1062 – City is eventually captured by Seljuks, However, to the dismay of the Caliphate, the new rulers quickly adopt the Persian culture and many settle in Shiraz. The Seljuks actually become great patrons of Persian art and culture, as they build a great empire.
  • c1075 – Shiraz is rebuilt to splendor by Seljuk Attabak Jalal-ed-din and his sons. Development attracts new immigrants from all corners of Persia, as well as Central Asia.
  • 1090 – Revolts within the Seljuk army are prompted and supported by Damascuss and Baghdad as the First Crusade weakens the Seljuk military might, and empire. Successful rebels in Shiraz are the Songhorid Turks.
  • 1100 – Shiraz becomes capital of the Songhorid dynasty of Turkish origin (Attabak-ane Fars).
  • 1100 – Although they promote Sunni Islam on behalf of Baghdad, the Songhorid also eventually become die hard Persians. They settle in and rebuild Shiraz as their home.
  • 1105 – A wall is restored to encircles the city with Eight gates. Influence of the Baghdad Caliphate is contained to mostly ceremonial terms.
  • c1110 – Hanafi sect of the Sunni Muslims rule the region from Shiraz. Although Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism are still freely practiced among a large minority in the city and the region. This tolerance promotes another migration wave into the city and the region. Many tribes of Turkish and Cacauss regions move to Shiraz, and surrounding areas. Many still live in the region (QashqaiLurs).
  • c1115 – Shiraz is a center of the pious and the Jurists of the nation. Number of religious shrines are built, many of which are still standing, among them: Masjid Atiq, Masjid Now.
  • 1170 – Sheikh Ruzbehan (1128–1209), establishes own Sufi sect in Shiraz.
  • 1150–1195 – Decline of Shiraz as dynastic feuds among the various ruling tribes and a famine ruin the city.
  • 1195 – Saad ibn Zangi, a local Attabak, establishes rule and restores the city.
  • 1210 – Future poet Saadi Shirazi born in Shiraz (approximate date).
  • 1280 – Shiraz saved from Mongol invasion by diplomacy of Abu Bakr ibn Saad. Genghis Khan is so enamoured by the Persian ruler that names him Ktlug Khan and considers him a friend.
  • 1281 – Grave site of Ahmad-ibn-Musa (son of the 7th imam of the shiites) is identified by Amir Moqarrab-alDin a Vazir of Abu Bakr, during excavation for a palace.
  • 1282 – A shrine is built on the grave site. Today it is the holiest Muslim site in the city and the region, (Shah Cheragh).
  • 1284 – Decline of Shiraz due to the high Taxes imposed by Mongols. Corruption and feuds resume.
  • 1287 – Drought and Famine kills approximately 100,000 people in Shiraz.[3]
  • 1291 – Saadi dies and is buried in his garden next to an artesian well. Currently the beautiful gardens are a major tourist attraction, with a still flowing well and stream next to Saadi’s tomb.
  • 1297 – Measles and Plague kill another 50,000 people in Shiraz and surrounding area.[4]
  • 1297 – Female ruler Aubee Khatton and her daughter Kurdujin save lives and the city by their charitable foundations. They were Songhorid matrons who had married into the Mongols.

14th–19th centuries

  • 1304 – Injuids dynasty takes over and rebuild Shiraz, but their in-fighting eventually causes more destruction.
  • 1325
    • Future poet Hafez born in Shiraz.
    • Ilkhanate period. Their rule is marked by warfare and destruction.
  • 1353 – The Muzaffarid dynasty captures Shiraz. Once again Shiraz is the capital for Persia.
  • c1350 – Traveller Ibn Battuta visits Shiraz and documents a great city, rich with gardens, streams, bazaars, and cleanly clothed people.
  • 1357 – Muzaffarid Shah Shuja takes reign and revives the city.
  • 1360 – Hafiz (1310–1380) is patronized by Shah Shuja and settles in Bage-Mossalla where he establishes a great following. His tomb in the same garden is a revered and major tourist attraction for world travellers and Iranians alike.
  • 1382 – Shah Shuja gives Timur’s army with gifts and saves the city from Pillage again.
  • 1384 – After the death of Shah Shuja in-fighting flares up among the Muzaffarids and leads to several battles in Shiraz and eventual city decline.
  • 1387 – Shirāz is occupied for a short period by Timur.[5]
  • 1393 – Timur occupies Shirāz for the second time and spent a month there “rejoicing and feasting”.[6] He appoints his grandson who has adopted the Persian culture as governor. Rebuilding of the city resumes.
  • 1400 – Shiraz is known as the city of Saadi and Hafez. Their tombs, still intact today, become shrines.
  • 1410 – Shiraz prospers with a population of 200,000. For a few years it is the capital of the Turkmen Aq Qoyunlu rulers.
  • 1470 – Mongols and Turkmen, the invaders, are soon ousted from the city.
  • 1503 – Saffavid ruler Shah Ismaeel captures Shiraz and kills or exiles most Sunni leaders to promote Shiism.
  • 1550 – Allah-verdi Khan and his son Emam-Qoli-Khan governors of the Saffavid rebuild city.
  • 1575 – Shiite followers grow in numbers, schools and shrines are built. Many are still standing, Madrese Khan.
  • c1590 – Period of relative prosperity. Arts flourish. Shiraz artists and craftsmen are famous and utilized worldwide. See Taj Mahal
  • c1600 – Shiraz wine discovered by the British and reported to be one of the best in the world.
  • 1621 – British and French merchants frequent the city. Grapes are taken to Europe.
  • 1630 – A flood destroys large parts of the town.
  • 1634 – Mulla Sadra, a well known philosopher from Shiraz is prosecuted for heretical writings and opinions. He promotes the idea of a free thinking Moslem and writes against the practice of blindly following the edicts of the clergy (Thaghlid).
  • 1668 – Another flood hits Shirāz.
  • 1724 – Shirāz is sacked by Afghan invaders.
  • 1744 – Nader Shah of the Afsharid dynasty captures Shiraz. Large sections of the city destroyed during wars.
  • 1747–1800 – Three way power struggle in Iran between Afsharid dynastyZand, and the Qajars
  • 1750s
    • Karim Khan Zand moves to Shiraz and takes the title People’s Representative, (Vakil-ol-Roaya). He establishes the Zand Dynasty.[7]
    • Shirāz becomes capital of the Zand dynasty. City is rebuilt. Structured into 11 quarters (10 Muslim and one Jewish). Huge moat and wall surround the city, with six gates. Culture, Arts and minorities flourish.
  • 1794 – End of the Zand dynasty, and Shirāz’ status as capital.
  • 1794 – Shiraz captured by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, pillaged and destroyed.
  • 1800 – Decline of the city under the Qajar dynasty
  • 1822 – Plague and Cholera epidemics kill thousands.
  • 1824 – An earthquake destroys parts of the town.
  • 1830 – Plague of locusts destroys the crops, local agriculture and creates famine. Tens of thousands die and many more move out of the city. Population decreases to only about 19000 by diseases and outmigration.
  • 1844 – A young merchant, Sayyid `Alí Muhammad and given the title of ‘The Báb‘ (Arabic, meaning ‘The Gate’), declared His Messianic mission and founded the Bábí Faith.
  • 1853 – Another major earthquake hits Shirāz.
  • 1860 – British influence prevails in southern Iran and Shiraz. The British are actively opposed by the native Qashqai tribes in the mountains outside the city.
  • 1869 – Shiraz economy affected by opening of the Suez Canal in Egypt.[8]
  • 1872 – Fars newspaper begins publication.
  • 1880 – Qavam family suppresses local unrests with the help of the British Indian Rifelmen.
  • 1883 – First official census shows a population of 53,607.

20th century

21st century

  • 2005 – Census reports show a population of 1,255,955.
  • 2011 – Population: 1,460,665.[16]
  • 2013 – 14 June: Local election held.
  • 2014 – City becomes part of newly formed national administrative Region 2.

See also

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Timeline of Qom

Timeline of Qom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of QomIran.

Prior to 20th century

  • 685 – Arab Shia Muslim refugees settle in Qom.[1]
  • 804/805 – Qom gains “administrative independence from Isfahan.”[2]
  • 816 – Death of Fātimah bint Mūsā (sister of 8th Imam of Twelver Shia Islam); shrine develops thereafter.[1]
  • 825 – Qom “attacked.”[1]
  • 988 – Ḥasan b. Moḥammad Qomi writes Tāriḵ-e Qom (city history).[3]
  • 1034 – Hassan-i Sabbah born in Qom (approximate date).
  • 1224 – City besieged by Mongol forces.[2]
  • 1393 – Timur in power.[4]
  • 1442 – City becomes seat of government of Timurid monarch Sultan Muhammad bin Baysonqor.[2]
  • 1447/1448 – City sacked by Qara Qoyunlu forces.[4]
  • 1469 – Ağ Qoyunlu in power.[4]
  • 1501 – Twelver Shia Islam declared official state religion in Iran, a development beneficial to Qom as a holy city (approximate date).[5]
  • 1722 – Qom sacked by Afghans.[1]
  • 1883 – “New court” built at the Fatima shrine.[2]

20th century

21st century

See also

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Timeline of Mashhad

Timeline of Mashhad

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of MashhadIran.

Prior to 20th century

20th century

21st century

See also

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Timeline of Kerman

Timeline of Kerman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of KermanIran.

Prior to 20th century[edit]

20th century

21st century

See also

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Timeline of Isfahan

Timeline of Isfahan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of IsfahanIran.

  • 771 – Friday Mosque established in Yahudiyya (approximate date).[1]
  • 1051 – Isfahan besieged by Seljuk forces of Tughril;[2] city becomes capital of the Seljuk Empire.[3]
  • 1070 – Nezamiyeh Madrasa built (approximate date).[1]
  • 1107 – Chihil Dukhtaran (minaret) erected.[1]
  • 1194 – Khwarazmian Ala ad-Din Tekish in power.[4]
  • 1226 – City sacked by Mongol forces.[2]
  • 1228 – City besieged by Mongol forces again.[2][5]
  • 1240/1241 – Isfahan taken by Mongol forces.[5][4]
  • 1325 – Emamzadeh Jafar (tomb/shrine) built.[1]
  • 1341/1342 – Shaikh Abu Esḥāq Inju becomes governor of Isfahan.[2]
  • 1356 – Amir Mobārez-al-Din Mo-ḥammad Moẓaffari becomes governor of Isfahan.[2]
  • 1387 – Isfahan besieged by forces of Timur.[2][6]

16th-19th centuries

20th century

21st century

See also

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Timeline of Hamadan

Timeline of Hamadan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of HamadanIran.

Prior to 20th century

20th century

21st century

See also

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia